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Body Armour
Body armor/armour, personal armor/armour, suits of armour or coats of armour all refer to protective clothing, designed to absorb and/or deflect slashing, bludgeoning and penetrating attacks by weapons. It was historically used to protect military personnel, whereas today, it is also used to protect various types of police (riot police in particular), private citizens, private security guards[1] or bodyguards
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Hussite Wars
Hussite
Hussite
victory, particularly for Moderate Hussites[1] Hussite
Hussite
church becomes free from the Papacy[1] Compromise between
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Case Hardening
Case-hardening
Case-hardening
or surface hardening is the process of hardening the surface of a metal object while allowing the metal deeper underneath to remain soft, thus forming a thin layer of harder metal (called the "case") at the surface
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European History
The history of Europe
Europe
covers the peoples inhabiting Europe
Europe
from prehistory to the present. The period known as classical antiquity began with the emergence of the city-states of ancient Greece. Later, the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
came to dominate the entire Mediterranean basin. The fall of the Roman Empire in AD 476 traditionally marks the start of the Middle Ages. Beginning in the 14th century a Renaissance
Renaissance
of knowledge challenged traditional doctrines in science and theology. Simultaneously, the Protestant Reformation
Reformation
set up Protestant churches primarily in Germany, Scandinavia and England. After 1800, the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
brought prosperity to Britain and Western Europe. The main powers set up colonies in most of the Americas and Africa, and parts of Asia
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Hauberk
A hauberk is a shirt of mail. The term is usually used to describe a shirt reaching at least to mid-thigh and including sleeves. Haubergeon ("little hauberk") generally refers to a smaller version of the hauberk, but the terms are often used interchangeably.Contents1 History 2 Construction 3 Gallery 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] The word hauberk is derived from the Old Frankish
Old Frankish
word halsberg,[1] which originally described a small piece of mail that protects ("bergen", literally "to give protection, to save, to rescue") the throat and the neck (the "Hals"). The Roman author Varro attributes the invention of mail to the Celts. The earliest extant example was found in Ciumeşti in modern Romania and is dated to the 4th–5th centuries BC. Roman armies adopted similar technology after encountering it. Mail armour spread throughout the Mediterranean Basin with the expansion of the Romans
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Plate Armour
Plate armor is a historical type of personal body armour made from iron or steel plates, culminating in the iconic suit of armour entirely encasing the wearer. While there are early predecessors such as the Roman-era lorica segmentata, full plate armour developed in Europe during the Late Middle Ages, especially in the context of the Hundred Years' War, from the coat of plates worn over mail suits during the 13th century. In Europe, plate armour reached its peak in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. The full suit of armour is thus a feature of the very end of the Middle Ages and of the Renaissance period. Its popular association with the "medieval knight" is due to the specialised jousting armour which developed in the 16th century. Full suits of Gothic plate armour
Gothic plate armour
were worn on the battlefields of the Burgundian and Italian Wars
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Medieval
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire
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Renaissance
The Renaissance
Renaissance
(UK: /rɪˈneɪsəns/, US: /rɛnəˈsɑːns/)[1] is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries. It is an extension of the Middle Ages, and is bridged by the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
to modern history. It grew in fragments, with the very first traces found seemingly in Italy, coming to cover much of Europe, for some scholars marking the beginning of the modern age. The intellectual basis of the Renaissance
Renaissance
was its own invented version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science and literature
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Knight
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch or other political leader for service to the monarch or country, especially in a military capacity. Historically, in Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors.[1] During the High Middle Ages, knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility. By the Late Middle Ages, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry, a code of conduct for the perfect courtly Christian warrior. Often, a knight was a vassal who served as a fighter for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings.[2] The lords trusted the knights, who were skilled in battle on horseback. Knighthood
Knighthood
in the Middle Ages was closely linked with horsemanship (and especially the joust) from its origins in the 12th century until its final flowering as a fashion among the high nobility in the Duchy of Burgundy in the 15th century
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Components Of Medieval Armour
This table identifies various pieces of armour worn from the medieval to Early Modern period in the West, mostly plate but some mail, arranged by the part of body that is protected and roughly by date. No attempt has been made to identify fastening components or various appendages such as lancerests or plumeholders or clothing such as tabards or surcoats which were often worn over a harness. There are a variety of alternative names and spellings (such as cowter/couter or bassinet/bascinet/basinet or besagew/besague) which often reflect a word introduced from the French
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Besagew
Besagues are circular defences designed to protect the armpits, as part of a harness of plate armour. The armpits are the location of the axillary arteries, and protecting them was therefore vital. Armour without besagues might employ larger shoulder defenses, such as winged pauldrons or simply leave the mail beneath exposed. References[edit]Edge, David and Paddock, John (1988). Arms & Armor of the Medieval Knight, New York: Crescent Books
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Splint Armour
Splint armour, also referred to as splinted armour, first appears in a Scythian grave from the 4th century BC.[1]Contents1 Description1.1 Splint mail/splinted mail2 See also 3 References 4 BibliographyDescription[edit] Limb armor consisting of strips of metal ("splints") are attached to a fabric (cloth or leather) backing ("foundation"). The splints are narrow metal strips arranged longitudinally, pierced for riveting or sewing to the foundation. Splint armour is most commonly found as greaves or vambraces. It appears in the Swedish Migration Era[2] and again in the 14th century as part of transitional armour, where it was also used to form cuisses and rerebraces. Splint mail/splinted mail[edit] While a few complete suits of armour have been found made from splints of wood, leather, or bone, the Victorian neologism "splinted mail" usually refers to the limb protections of crusader knights
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Carburizing
Carburizing,[1] carburising (chiefly British English), or carburization is a heat treatment process in which iron or steel absorbs carbon while the metal is heated in the presence of a carbon-bearing material, such as charcoal or carbon monoxide. The intent is to make the metal harder. Depending on the amount of time and temperature, the affected area can vary in carbon content. Longer carburizing times and higher temperatures typically increase the depth of carbon diffusion
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Black Death
The Black Death, also known as the Black Plague, Great Plague or simply Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people in Eurasia
Eurasia
and peaking in Europe
Europe
from 1347 to 1351.[1][2][3] The bacteri
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Turkish People
  Turkey
Turkey
63,589,988–65,560,701 (2008 est. of 2015 pop.)[1]   Northern Cyprus
Northern Cyprus
280,000 d[›][2][3] Germany 2,852,000 (incl
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Maratha Empire
The Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
or the Maratha
Maratha
Confederacy was an Indian power that dominated much of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
in the 18th century. The empire formally existed from 1674 with the coronation of Chhatrapati Shivaji
Shivaji
and ended in 1818 with the defeat of Peshwa
Peshwa
Bajirao
Bajirao
II. The Marathas are credited to a large extent for ending Mughal rule in India.[3][note 1][4][5][6] The Marathas were a Marathi warrior group from the western Deccan Plateau (present day Maharashtra) that rose to prominence by establishing a Hindavi Swarajya
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