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Body Armour
BODY ARMOR or BODY ARMOUR, or PERSONAL ARMOR/ARMOUR is protective clothing, designed to absorb and/or deflect slashing, bludgeoning and penetrating attacks by weapons. It was historically used to protect military personnel , whereas today, it is also used to protect various types of police (riot police in particular), private citizens, private security guards or bodyguards . Today there are two main types: regular non-plated personal armor (used by the people mentioned above, except combat soldiers) and hard-plate reinforced personal armor, which is used by combat soldiers, police tactical units, private citizens, and hostage rescue teams
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Components Of Medieval Armour
This table identifies various pieces of armour worn from the medieval to Early Modern period
Early Modern period
in the West, mostly plate but some mail, arranged by the part of body that is protected and roughly by date. No attempt has been made to identify fastening components or various appendages such as lancerests or plumeholders or clothing such as tabards or surcoats which were often worn over a harness. There are a variety of alternative names and spellings (such as cowter/couter or bassinet/bascinet/basinet or besagew/besague) which often reflect a word introduced from the French. Generally, the English spelling has been preferred (including mail instead of the lately used maille or the inauthentic term chainmail)
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Knight
A KNIGHT is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch or other political leader for service to the monarch or country, especially in a military capacity. Historically, in Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors . During the High Middle Ages , knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility . By the Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry , a code of conduct for the perfect courtly Christian warrior. Often, a knight was a vassal who served as a fighter for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings. The lords trusted the knights, who were skilled in battle on horseback . Knighthood in the Middle Ages was closely linked with horsemanship (and especially the joust ) from its origins in the 12th century until its final flowering as a fashion among the high nobility in the Duchy of Burgundy in the 15th century
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Besagew
BESAGUES are circular defences designed to protect the armpits, as part of a harness of plate armour . The armpits are the location of the axillary arteries , and protecting them was therefore vital. Armour
Armour
without besagues might employ larger shoulder defenses, such as winged pauldrons or simply leave the mail beneath exposed. REFERENCES * Edge, David and Paddock, John (1988)
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Splint Armour
SPLINT ARMOUR, also referred to as SPLINTED ARMOUR, first appears in a Scythian grave from the 4th century BC. CONTENTS* 1 Description * 1.1 Splint mail/splinted mail * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Bibliography DESCRIPTIONLimb armor consisting of strips of metal ("splints") are attached to a fabric (cloth or leather) backing ("foundation"). The splints are narrow metal strips arranged longitudinally, pierced for riveting or sewing to the foundation. Splint armour
Splint armour
is most commonly found as greaves or vambraces . It appears in the Swedish Migration Era and again in the 14th century as part of transitional armour , where it was also used to form cuisses and rerebraces
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Carburizing
CARBURIZING, CARBURISING (chiefly British English), or CARBURIZATION is a heat treatment process in which iron or steel absorbs carbon while the metal is heated in the presence of a carbon-bearing material, such as charcoal or carbon monoxide . The intent is to make the metal harder. Depending on the amount of time and temperature, the affected area can vary in carbon content. Longer carburizing times and higher temperatures typically increase the depth of carbon diffusion. When the iron or steel is cooled rapidly by quenching , the higher carbon content on the outer surface becomes hard due to the transformation from austenite to martensite , while the core remains soft and tough as a ferritic and/or pearlite microstructure
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Renaissance
The RENAISSANCE (UK : /rɪˈneɪsəns/ , US : /rɛnəˈsɑːns/ ) is a period in European history , covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries. It is an extension of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, and is bridged by the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
to modern history . It grew in fragments, with the very first traces found seemingly in Italy
Italy
, coming to cover much of Europe, for some scholars marking the beginning of the modern age . The intellectual basis of the Renaissance
Renaissance
was its own invented version of humanism , derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras
Protagoras
, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science and literature
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Medieval
In the history of Europe , the MIDDLE AGES or MEDIEVAL PERIOD lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery . The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity , the medieval period, and the modern period . The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early , High , and Late Middle Ages . Population decline , counterurbanisation , invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity , continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements of the Migration Period , including various Germanic peoples , formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire
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European History
The HISTORY OF EUROPE covers the peoples inhabiting Europe
Europe
from prehistory to the present. The period known as classical antiquity began with the emergence of the city-states of Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
. Later, the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
came to dominate the entire Mediterranean basin. The fall of the Roman Empire in AD 476 traditionally marks the start of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. Beginning in the 14th century a Renaissance
Renaissance
of knowledge challenged traditional doctrines in science and theology. Simultaneously, the Protestant Reformation set up Protestant churches primarily in Germany, Scandinavia and England. After 1800 , the Industrial Revolution brought prosperity to Britain and Western Europe. The main powers set up colonies in most of the Americas and Africa, and parts of Asia
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Hauberk
A HAUBERK is a shirt of mail . The term is usually used to describe a shirt reaching at least to mid-thigh and including sleeves. HAUBERGEON ("little hauberk") generally refers to a smaller version of the hauberk, but the terms are often used interchangeably. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Construction * 3 Gallery * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYThe word hauberk is derived from the Old Frankish
Old Frankish
word halsberg, which originally described a small piece of mail that protects ("bergen", literally "to give protection, to save, to rescue") the throat and the neck (the "Hals"). The Roman author Varro attributes the invention of mail to the Celts. The earliest extant example was found in Ciumeşti in modern Romania and is dated to the 4th–5th centuries BC. Roman armies adopted similar technology after encountering it. Mail armour spread throughout the Mediterranean Basin with the expansion of the Romans
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Plate Armour
PLATE ARMOUR is a historical type of personal body armour made from iron or steel plates, culminating in the iconic SUIT OF ARMOUR entirely encasing the wearer. While there are early predecessors such as the Roman-era lorica segmentata , full plate armour developed in Europe during the Late Middle Ages , especially in the context of the Hundred Years\' War , from the coat of plates worn over mail suits during the 13th century. In Europe, plate armour reached its peak in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. The full suit of armour is thus a feature of the very end of the Middle Ages and of the Renaissance period. Its popular association with the "medieval knight " is due to the specialised jousting armour which developed in the 16th century. Full suits of Gothic plate armour were worn on the battlefields of the Burgundian and Italian Wars
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Case Hardening
CASE-HARDENING or SURFACE HARDENING is the process of hardening the surface of a metal object while allowing the metal deeper underneath to remain soft, thus forming a thin layer of harder metal (called the "case") at the surface. For iron or steel with low carbon content, which has poor to no hardenability of its own, the case-hardening process involves infusing additional carbon into the surface layer. Case-hardening is usually done after the part has been formed into its final shape, but can also be done to increase the hardening element content of bars to be used in a pattern welding or similar process. The term FACE HARDENING is also used to describe this technique, when discussing modern armour . Because hardened metal is usually more brittle than softer metal, through-hardening (that is, hardening the metal uniformly throughout the piece) is not always a suitable choice for uses where the metal part is subject to certain kinds of stress
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Black Death
The BLACK DEATH was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history , resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people in Eurasia
Eurasia
and peaking in Europe
Europe
in the years 1346–1353. Although there were several competing theories as to the cause of the Black Death, analyses of DNA
DNA
from people in northern and southern Europe
Europe
published in 2010 and 2011 indicate that the pathogen responsible was the Yersinia pestis
Yersinia pestis
bacterium , resulting in several forms of plague , including the bubonic plague . The Black Death
Black Death
is thought to have originated in the arid plains of Central Asia
Central Asia
, where it then travelled along the Silk Road
Silk Road
, reaching Crimea
Crimea
by 1343
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Late Middle Ages
The LATE MIDDLE AGES or LATE MEDIEVAL PERIOD were the period of European history generally comprising the 14th and 15th centuries (c. 1301–1500). The Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
followed the High Middle Ages and preceded the onset of the early modern era (and, in much of Europe, the Renaissance
Renaissance
). Around 1300, centuries of prosperity and growth in Europe
Europe
came to a halt. A series of famines and plagues, including the Great Famine
Famine
of 1315–1317 and the Black Death
Black Death
, reduced the population to around half of what it was before the calamities. Along with depopulation came social unrest and endemic warfare
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Close Helm
The CLOSE HELMET, also called the CLOSE HELM was a military helmet worn by knights and other men-at-arms in the Late Medieval and Renaissance eras. It was also used by some heavily armoured, pistol-armed, cuirassiers into the mid 17th century. It was a fully enclosing helmet with a pivoting visor and integral bevor . CONTENTS * 1 Characteristics * 2 Variations * 3 Use * 4 References * 5 Bibliography * 6 Further reading CHARACTERISTICS Comparison of close helm and armet in open position. Note the close helm uses a single pivot point for the double visor and bevor, while the armet has hinged cheek plates that lock in place. The close helmet was developed from the later versions of the sallet and the superficially similar armet in the late 15th century. In contemporary sources it was sometimes also referred to as an 'armet', though modern scholarship draws a clear distinction between the two types
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