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Blood Cultures
BLOOD CULTURE is a microbiological culture of blood . It is employed to detect infections that are spreading through the bloodstream (such as bacteremia , septicemia amongst others). This is possible because the bloodstream is usually a sterile environment. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Purposes * 3 Risks * 4 Method * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORY Blood
Blood
cultures were pioneered in the early 20th century. PURPOSESWhen a patient shows signs or symptoms of a systemic infection, results from a blood culture can verify that an infection is present, and they can identify the type (or types) of microorganism that is responsible for the infection. For example, blood tests can identify the causative organisms in severe pneumonia , puerperal fever , pelvic inflammatory disease , neonatal epiglottitis , sepsis , and fever of unknown origin (FUO). However, negative growths do not exclude infection
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Thioglycollate Broth
THIOGLYCOLATE BROTH is a multipurpose, enriched, differential medium used primarily to determine the oxygen requirements of microorganisms. Sodium thioglycolate in the medium consumes oxygen and permits the growth of obligate anaerobes . This, combined with the diffusion of oxygen from the top of the broth, produces a range of oxygen concentrations in the medium along its depth. The oxygen concentration at a given level is indicated by a redox-sensitive dye such as resazurine that turns pink in the presence of oxygen. Thioglycolate broth medium is recommended to isolate strict anaerobes should an anaerobic infection be suspected. This allows the differentiation of obligate aerobes , obligate anaerobes , facultative anaerobes , microaerophiles , and aerotolerant organisms . For example, obligately anaerobic Clostridium species will be seen growing only in the bottom of the test tube
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Anaerobic Organism
An ANAEROBIC ORGANISM or ANAEROBE is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth. It may react negatively or even die if oxygen is present. (In contrast, an aerobic organism (aerobe) is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment.) An anaerobic organism may be unicellular (e.g. protozoans , bacteria ) or multicellular. For practical purposes, there are three categories of anaerobe: obligate anaerobes , which are harmed by the presence of oxygen; aerotolerant organisms , which cannot use oxygen for growth but tolerate its presence; and facultative anaerobes , which can grow without oxygen but use oxygen if it is present. Human muscle cells function as facultative anaerobes during vigorous exercise and this creates a build-up of the byproduct lactic acid in the muscles, resulting in the characteristic burning and aching senstations
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Aerobic Organism
An AEROBIC ORGANISM or AEROBE is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment. In contrast, an anaerobic organism (anaerobe) is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth. Some anaerobes react negatively or even die if oxygen is present. CONTENTS * 1 Types * 2 Glucose
Glucose
* 3 See also * 4 References TYPES * OBLIGATE AEROBES need oxygen to grow. In a process known as cellular respiration , these organisms use oxygen to oxidize substrates (for example sugars and fats ) and generate energy . * FACULTATIVE ANAEROBES use oxygen if it is available, but also have anaerobic methods of energy production. * MICROAEROPHILES require oxygen for energy production, but are harmed by atmospheric concentrations of oxygen (21% O2)
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Growth Medium
A GROWTH MEDIUM or CULTURE MEDIUM is a solid, liquid or semi-solid designed to support the growth of microorganisms or cells , or small plants like the moss Physcomitrella patens . Different types of media are used for growing different types of cells. The two major types of growth media are those used for cell culture , which use specific cell types derived from plants or animals, and microbiological culture , which are used for growing microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi . The most common growth media for microorganisms are nutrient broths and agar plates ; specialized media are sometimes required for microorganism and cell culture growth. Some organisms, termed fastidious organisms, require specialized environments due to complex nutritional requirements. Viruses , for example, are obligate intracellular parasites and require a growth medium containing living cells
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Isopropyl Alcohol
ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL ( IUPAC
IUPAC
name propan-2-ol), also called DIMETHYL CARBINOL or, incorrectly , ISOPROPANOL, is a compound with the chemical formula C3H8O or C3H7OH or CH3CHOHCH3 (sometimes represented as I-PROH). It is a colorless , flammable chemical compound with a strong odor . As a propyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, it is the simplest example of a secondary alcohol , where the alcohol carbon atom is attached to two other carbon atoms, sometimes shown as (CH3)2CHOH. It is a structural isomer of 1-propanol . It has a wide variety of industrial and household uses, and is a common ingredient in chemicals such as antiseptics , disinfectants and detergents
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Isolation (microbiology)
In microbiology, the term ISOLATION refers to the separation of a strain from a natural, mixed population of living microbes , as present in the environment, for example in water or soil flora , or from living beings with skin flora , oral flora or gut flora , in order to identify the microbe(s) of interest. Historically, the laboratory techniques of isolation first developed in the field of bacteriology and parasitology (during the 19th century), before those in virology during the 20th century. Methods of microbial isolation have drastically changed over the past 50 years, from a labor perspective with increasing mechanization, and in regard to the technology involved, and hence speed and accuracy
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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PubMed Central
PUBMED CENTRAL (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed
PubMed
Central is much more than just a document repository. Submissions into PMC undergo an indexing and formatting procedure which results in enhanced metadata, medical ontology , and unique identifiers which all enrich the XML
XML
structured data for each article on deposit. Content within PMC can easily be interlinked to many other NCBI databases and accessed via Entrez
Entrez
search and retrieval systems, further enhancing the public's ability to freely discover, read and build upon this portfolio of biomedical knowledge
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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ICD-9-CM Volume 3
ICD-9-CM VOLUME 3 is a system of procedural codes. It is a subset of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) 9-CM. Volumes 1 and 2 are used for diagnostic codes
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Fever Of Unknown Origin
FEVER OF UNKNOWN ORIGIN (FUO), PYREXIA OF UNKNOWN ORIGIN (PUO) or FEBRIS E CAUSA IGNOTA (FEBRIS E.C.I.) refers to a condition in which the patient has an elevated temperature (fever ) but despite investigations by a physician no explanation has been found. If the cause is found it is usually a diagnosis of exclusion , that is, by eliminating all possibilities until only one explanation remains, and taking this as the correct one
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Microbiological Culture
A MICROBIOLOGICAL CULTURE, or MICROBIAL CULTURE, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture media under controlled laboratory conditions. Microbial cultures are foundational and basic diagnostic methods used extensively as a research tool in molecular biology . Microbial cultures are used to determine the type of organism, its abundance in the sample being tested, or both. It is one of the primary diagnostic methods of microbiology and used as a tool to determine the cause of infectious disease by letting the agent multiply in a predetermined medium. For example, a throat culture is taken by scraping the lining of tissue in the back of the throat and blotting the sample into a medium to be able to screen for harmful microorganisms, such as Streptococcus pyogenes
Streptococcus pyogenes
, the causative agent of strep throat
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MedlinePlus
MEDLINEPLUS is an online information service produced by the United States National Library of Medicine
Medicine
. The service provides curated consumer health information in English and Spanish. The site street together information from the National Library of Medicine
Medicine
(NLM), the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
(NIH), other U.S. government agencies, and health-related organizations. There is also a site optimized for display on mobile devices, in both English and Spanish. In 2015, about 400 million people from around the world used MedlinePlus. The service is funded by the NLM and is free to users. MedlinePlus provides encyclopedic information on health and drug issues, and provides a directory of medical services
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Infections
INFECTION is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease -causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to these organisms and the toxins they produce. INFECTIOUS DISEASE, also known as TRANSMISSIBLE DISEASE or COMMUNICABLE DISEASE, is illness resulting from an infection. Infections are caused by infectious agents including viruses , viroids , prions , bacteria , nematodes such as parasitic roundworms and pinworms , arthropods such as ticks , mites , fleas , and lice , fungi such as ringworm , and other macroparasites such as tapeworms and other helminths . Hosts can fight infections using their immune system . Mammalian hosts react to infections with an innate response, often involving inflammation , followed by an adaptive response
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