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Bleeding Kansas
Bleeding Kansas, Bloody Kansas
Kansas
or the Border War was a series of violent confrontations in the United States
United States
between 1854 and 1861 which emerged from a political and ideological debate over the legality of slavery in the proposed state of Kansas. The conflict was characterized by years of electoral fraud, raids, assaults and retributive murders carried out by rival factions of anti-slavery "Free-Staters" and pro-slavery "Border Ruffians" in Kansas
Kansas
and neighboring Missouri. At the heart of the conflict was the question of whether the Kansas Territory would allow or outlaw slavery, and thus enter the Union as a slave state or a free state. The Kansas–Nebraska Act
Kansas–Nebraska Act
of 1854 called for "popular sovereignty", requiring that the decision about slavery be made by the territory's settlers (rather than outsiders) and decided by a popular vote
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Missouri
Missouri
Missouri
is a state in the Midwestern
Midwestern
United States.[5] With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union. The largest urban areas are Kansas
Kansas
City, St. Louis, Springfield, and Columbia; the capital is Jefferson City, located on the Missouri River. The state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber, minerals, and recreation. The Mississippi River
Mississippi River
forms the eastern border of the state. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri
Missouri
for at least 12,000 years. The Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
built cities and mounds, before declining in the 1300s. When European explorers arrived in the 1600s they encountered the Osage and Missouria
Missouria
nations
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Northwest Ordinance
The Northwest Ordinance
Northwest Ordinance
(formally An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States, North-West of the River Ohio, and also known as The Ordinance of 1787) enacted July 13, 1787, was an act of the Congress of the Confederation
Congress of the Confederation
of the United States. It created the Northwest Territory, the first organized territory of the United States, from lands beyond the Appalachian Mountains, between British North America and the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
to the north and the Ohio River
Ohio River
to the south
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Manifest Destiny
In the 19th century, manifest destiny was a widely held belief in the United States
United States
that its settlers were destined to expand across North America. There are three basic themes to manifest destiny:The special virtues of the American people and their institutions The mission of the United States
United States
to redeem and remake the west in the image of agrarian America An irresistible destiny to accomplish this essential duty[3]Historian Frederick Merk says this concept was born out of "a sense of mission to redeem the Old World
Old World
by high example ... generated by the potentialities of a new earth for building a new heaven".[4] Historians have emphasized that "manifest destiny" was a contested concept—pre-civil war Democrats endorsed the idea but many prominent Americans (such as Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, and most Whigs) rejected it
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Texas Annexation
The Texas
Texas
Annexation
Annexation
was the 1845 incorporation of the Republic of Texas
Texas
into the United States
United States
of America, which was admitted to the Union as the 28th state on December 29, 1845. The Republic of Texas
Republic of Texas
declared independence from the Republic of Mexico on March 2, 1836. At the time the vast majority of the Texian population favored the annexation of the Republic by the United States. The leadership of both major U.S. political parties, the Democrats and the Whigs, opposed the introduction of Texas, a vast slave-holding region, into the volatile political climate of the pro- and anti-slavery sectional controversies in Congress. Moreover, they wished to avoid a war with Mexico, whose government refused to acknowledge the sovereignty of its rebellious northern province
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New York Tribune
The New-York Tribune
New-York Tribune
was an American newspaper, first established in 1841 by editor Horace Greeley
Horace Greeley
(1811–1872). Between 1842 and 1866, the newspaper bore the name New-York Daily Tribune.[1] From the 1840s through the 1860s it was the dominant Whig Party and then Republican newspaper in the United States. The paper achieved a circulation of approximately 200,000 during the decade of the 1850s, making it the largest daily paper then in New York City
New York City
and perhaps the nation. The Tribune's editorials were widely shared, copied in other city newspapers, read and helped shape national American opinion
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Guerrilla Warfare
Guerrilla warfare
Guerrilla warfare
is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.[1] Guerrilla groups are a type of violent non-state actor.Contents1 Etymology 2 Strategy, tactics and methods2.1 Strategy 2.2 Tactics 2.3 Unconventional methods 2.4 Growth during the 20th century3 History 4 Counter-guerrilla warfare4.1 Scholarship4.1.1 Classic guidelines 4.1.2 Variants5 Foco
Foco
theory 6 Relationship to terrorism 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksEtymology[edit] The Spanish word "guerrilla" is the diminutive form of "guerra" ("war")
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto:  "In God
God
We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos  "E pluribus unum" (Lat
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Electoral Fraud
Electoral fraud, election manipulation, or vote rigging is illegal interference with the process of an election, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both. What constitutes electoral fraud varies from country to country. Many kinds of election fraud are outlawed in electoral legislation, but others are in violation of general laws, such as those banning assault, harassment or libel
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Battle Of Negro Fort
A battle is a combat in warfare between two or more armed forces, or combatants. A war sometimes consists of many battles. Battles generally are well defined in duration, area, and force commitment.[1] A battle with only limited engagement between the forces and without decisive results is sometimes called a skirmish. Wars and military campaigns are guided by strategy, whereas battles take place on a level of planning and execution known as operational mobility.[2] German strategist Carl von Clausewitz
Carl von Clausewitz
stated that "the employment of battles ..
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Pro-slavery
Proslavery
Proslavery
is an ideology that perceives slavery as a positive good.Contents1 Ancient and mediaeval views 2 Early modern views 3 Islamic views 4 United States4.1 Abolitionism in the United States 4.2 Political proslavery 4.3 Proslavery
Proslavery
Christians 4.4 Proslavery
Proslavery
views in the 20th century5 See also 6 References 7 BibliographyAncient and mediaeval views[edit] Aristotle
Aristotle
claimed that some people were natural slaves, and that it was in the best interests of these people to be enslaved. He writes in book I of the Politics:Accordingly, those who are as different [from other men] as the soul from the body or man from beast—and they are in this state if their work is the use of the body, and if this is the best that can come from them—are slaves by nature
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Horace Greeley
Horace Greeley
Horace Greeley
(February 3, 1811 – November 29, 1872) was founder and editor of the New-York Tribune, among the great newspapers of its time. Long active in politics, he served briefly as a congressman from New York, and was the unsuccessful candidate of the new Liberal Republican party in the 1872 presidential election against incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant. Greeley was born to a poor family in Amherst, New Hampshire. He was apprenticed to a printer in Vermont and went to New York City in 1831 to seek his fortune. He wrote for or edited several publications and involved himself in Whig Party politics, taking a significant part in William Henry Harrison's successful 1840 presidential campaign. The following year, he founded the Tribune, which became the highest-circulating newspaper in the country through weekly editions sent by mail
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Popular Sovereignty In The United States
Popular sovereignty is a doctrine rooted in the belief that each citizen has sovereignty over themselves. Citizens may unite and offer to delegate a portion of their sovereign powers and duties to those who wish to serve as officers of the state, contingent on the officers agreeing to serve according to the will of the people. In the United States, the term has been used to express this concept in constitutional law. It was also used during the 19th century in reference to a proposed solution to the debate over the expansion of slavery
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Kentucky And Virginia Resolutions
The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (or Resolves) were political statements drafted in 1798 and 1799, in which the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures took the position that the federal Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional. The resolutions argued that the states had the right and the duty to declare as unconstitutional those acts of Congress that were not authorized by the Constitution. In doing so, they argued for states' rights and strict constructionism of the Constitution. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions of 1798 were written secretly by Vice President Thomas Jefferson and James Madison respectively. The principles stated in the resolutions became known as the "Principles of '98". Adherents argue that the states can judge the constitutionality of central government laws and decrees. The Kentucky Resolutions of 1798 argued that each individual state has the power to declare that federal laws are unconstitutional and void
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Wilmot Proviso
The Wilmot Proviso
Wilmot Proviso
proposed an American law to ban slavery in territory acquired from Mexico
Mexico
in the Mexican War.[1] The conflict over the Wilmot proviso was one of the major events leading to the American Civil War. Congressman David Wilmot
David Wilmot
first introduced the proviso in the United States House of Representatives on August 8, 1846, as a rider on a $2,000,000 appropriations bill intended for the final negotiations to resolve the Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
(this was only three months into the two-year war). It passed the House but failed in the Senate, where the South had greater representation. It was reintroduced in February 1847 and again passed the House and failed in the Senate. In 1848, an attempt to make it part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
also failed
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Tariff Of Abominations
The " Tariff
Tariff
of Abominations" was a protective tariff passed by the Congress of the United States
Congress of the United States
on May 19, 1828, designed to protect industry in the northern United States. Enacted during the presidency of John Quincy
John Quincy
Adams, it was labeled the Tariff
Tariff
of Abominations by its southern detractors because of the effects it had on the antebellum Southern economy. It set a 38% tax on 92% of all imported goods. Industries in the northern United States were being driven out of business by low-priced imported goods; the major goal of the tariff was to protect these industries by taxing those goods. The South, however, was harmed directly by having to pay higher prices on goods the region did not produce, and indirectly because reducing the exportation of British goods to the U.S
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