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Blancan
The Blancan North American Stage on the geologic timescale is the North American faunal stage according to the North American Land Mammal Ages chronology (NALMA), typically set from 4,750,000 to 1,806,000 years BP, a period of 2.944 million years.[1] It is usually considered to start in the early-mid Pliocene
Pliocene
Epoch and end by the early Pleistocene.[2] The Blancan is preceded by the Hemphillian and followed by the Irvingtonian NALMA stages. As usually defined, it corresponds to the mid- Zanclean through Piacenzian and Gelasian stages in Europe and Asia. In California, the Blancan roughly corresponds to the mid-Delmontian through Repettian and Venturian to the very early Wheelerian. The Australian contemporary stages are the mid-Cheltenhamian through Kalimnan and Yatalan
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Geologic Timescale
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time. It is used by geologists, paleontologists, and other Earth
Earth
scientists to describe the timing and relationships of events that have occurred during Earth's history
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Lagomorpha
Leporidae Ochotonidae Prolagidae
Prolagidae
†Range of Lagomorpha Fossil
Fossil
occurrences of leporids and ochotonids and global environmental change (climate change, C3/C4 plants distribution).[2]The lagomorphs are the members of the taxonomic order Lagomorpha, of which there are two living families: the Leporidae
Leporidae
(hares and rabbits) and the Ochotonidae
Ochotonidae
(pikas). The name of the order is derived from the Ancient Greek lagos (λαγώς, "hare") +morphē (μορφή, "form"). There are about eighty-seven species of lagomorph, including about twenty-nine species of pika, twenty-eight species of rabbit and cottontail, and thirty species of hare.[3] Lagomorphs share a common ancestor with rodents, together forming the clade Glires
Glires
(Latin: “dormice”)
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Faunal Stage
In chronostratigraphy, a stage is a succession of rock strata laid down in a single age on the geologic timescale, which usually represents millions of years of deposition. A given stage of rock and the corresponding age of time will by convention have the same name, and the same boundaries. Rock series are divided into stages, just as geological epochs are divided into ages. Stages can be divided into smaller stratigraphic units called chronozones
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Great American Interchange
The Great American Interchange
Great American Interchange
was an important late Cenozoic paleozoogeographic event in which land and freshwater fauna migrated from North America via Central America to South America
South America
and vice versa, as the volcanic Isthmus of Panama
Isthmus of Panama
rose up from the sea floor and bridged the formerly separated continents. The migration peaked dramatically around three million years (Ma) ago during the Piacenzian age. It resulted in the joining of the Neotropic (roughly South America) and Nearctic (roughly North America) ecozones definitively to form the Americas. The interchange is visible from observation of both biostratigraphy and nature (neontology)
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Artiodactyla
The even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla, from Ancient Greek ἄρτιος (ártios), meaning 'even', and δάκτυλος (dáktylos), meaning 'finger/toe') are ungulates (hoofed animals) whose weight is borne equally by the third and fourth toes. By contrast, odd-toed ungulates, such as horses, bear their weight primarily on their third toes
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Carnivora
Carnivora
Carnivora
(/kɑːrˈnɪvərə/;[3][4] from Latin
Latin
carō (stem carn-) "flesh" and vorāre "to devour") is a diverse scrotiferan order that includes over 280 species of placental mammals. Its members are formally referred to as carnivorans, whereas the word "carnivore" (often popularly applied to members of this group) can refer to any meat-eating organism. Carnivorans are the most diverse in size of any mammalian order, ranging from the least weasel (Mustela nivalis), at as little as 25 g (0.88 oz) and 11 cm (4.3 in), to the polar bear (Ursus maritimus), which can weigh up to 1,000 kg (2,200 lb), to the southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina), whose adult males weigh up to 5,000 kg (11,000 lb) and measure up to 6.9 m (23 ft) in length. Carnivorans have teeth and claws adapted for catching and eating other animals
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Hesperocyoninae
The Hesperocyoninae
Hesperocyoninae
are a subfamily of extinct canids.Contents1 Taxonomic history 2 Extinction 3 References 4 Further readingTaxonomic history[edit] The subfamily Hesperocyoninae
Hesperocyoninae
was named by Martin (1989). The members were reassigned to the family Canidae
Canidae
(with no subfamily) by Xiaoming Wang in 1999.[1] Hesperocyoninae
Hesperocyoninae
are basal canids that, according to Wang and Tedford, gave rise to the other canid groups, such as the Borophaginae
Borophaginae
and Caninae. This disused subfamily was endemic to North America, living from the Duchesnean stage of the Late Eocene
Late Eocene
through to the early Barstovian stage of the Miocene, lasting around 20 million years. It comprises 10 recognized genera and 26 recognized species; among these, four genera and species are new
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Canis
  1 C. lupus also includes domestic dogs, C. l. familiaris, and dingos, C. l. dingo Canis
Canis
mesomelas Canis
Canis
rufus Canis
Canis
simensis Canis
Canis
lycaon Canis
Canis
is a genus of the Canidae
Canidae
containing multiple extant species, such as wolves, coyotes, jackals, dingoes, and dogs. Species of this genus are distinguished by their moderate to large size, their massive, well-developed skulls and dentition, long legs, and comparatively short ears and tails.[2]Contents1 Etymology 2 Terminology 3 Taxonomy3.1 Canini 3.2 Canis 3.3 Evolution4 Dentition
Dentition
and biteforce 5 Behaviour5.1 Tooth breakage6 Wolves, dogs, and dingoes 7 Coyotes, jackals, and wolves 8 African migration 9 Gallery 10 See also 11 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The generic name Canis
Canis
means "dog" in Latin
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Homotherium
Homotherium (also known as the scimitar-toothed cat or scimitar cat)[2] is an extinct genus of machairodontine saber-toothed cats,[3] often termed scimitar-toothed cats, that inhabited North America, South America, Eurasia, and Africa during the Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs (4 mya – 12,000 years ago), existing for approximately 4 million years.[1][4] It first became extinct in Africa some 1.5 million years ago. In Eurasia it survived until about 30,000 years ago.[5] In South America it is only known from a few remains in the northern region (Venezuela), from the mid-Pleistocene.[6] The most recent European remains of Homotherium date to 28,000 years BP.[7]Contents1 Taxonomy and distribution 2 Description 3 Diet and habitats 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksTaxonomy and distribution[edit]H
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Xenosmilus
†Xenosmilus hodsonaeXenosmilus hodsonae (from Greek, ξένος, xenos, "strange" + σμίλη, smilē, "chisel" ) is an extinct member of the Machairodontinae, or saber-toothed cats. Two fairly intact specimens were found by amateur fossil hunters in 1983 (1981 by some sources) in the Haile limestone mines in Alachua County, Florida. In 1994 the fossils were examined, and it was decided that the cats were of an entirely new genus.[1] The fossils were of Irvingtonian age (1.8 to 0.3 Ma).[2]Xenosmilus and GlyptodonPhysically, the cat measured between 1.7–1.8 m (5.6–5.9 ft) long with a highly muscular body and probably weighed around 230–400 kg (510–880 lb). Only Smilodon populator was noticeably larger amongst the saber-toothed cats. Before their discovery, all known saber-toothed cats fell into two general categories. Dirk toothed cats had long upper canines and stout legs. Scimitar toothed cats had only mildly elongated canines, and long legs
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Perissodactyla
Members of the order Perissodactyla, also known as odd-toed ungulates, are mammals characterized by an odd number of toes and by hindgut fermentation with somewhat simple stomachs. Perissodactyla comes from the Ancient Greek περισσός (perissós, “uneven”) + δάκτυλος (dáktulos, “a finger, toe”). Unlike the even-toed ungulates, they digest plant cellulose in their intestines rather than in one or more stomach chambers. The order includes three extant families: Equidae
Equidae
(horses, asses, and zebras), Rhinocerotidae (rhinoceroses), and Tapiridae
Tapiridae
(tapirs), with a total of about 17 species
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Taxa
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit. Although neither is required, a taxon is usually known by a particular name and given a particular ranking, especially if and when it is accepted or becomes established. It is not uncommon, however, for taxonomists to remain at odds over what belongs to a taxon and the criteria used for inclusion
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Equus (genus)
E. africanus—African wild ass E. ferus—Wild horse E. grevyi—Grévy's zebra E. hemionus—Onager E. kiang—Kiang E. quagga—Plains zebra E. zebra—Mountain zebraEquus is a genus of mammals in the family Equidae, which includes horses, donkeys, and zebras. Within Equidae, Equus is the only recognized extant genus, comprising seven living species. The term equine refers to any member of this genus, including horses. Like Equidae
Equidae
more broadly, Equus has numerous extinct species known only from fossils. The genus most likely originated in North America and spread quickly to the Old World. Equines are odd-toed ungulates with slender legs, long heads, relatively long necks, manes (erect in most subspecies) and long tails
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Proboscidea
†Eritherium †Moeritherium †Plesielephantiformes ElephantiformesThe Proboscidea
Proboscidea
(from the Greek προβοσκίς and the Latin proboscis) are a taxonomic order of afrotherian mammals containing one living family, Elephantidae, and several extinct families. This order, first described by J. Illiger in 1811, encompasses the trunked mammals.[1] In addition to their enormous size, later proboscideans are distinguished by tusks and long, muscular trunks; these features were less developed or absent in the smaller early proboscideans. Beginning in the mid Miocene, most members of this order were very large animals
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Rodent
Anomaluromorpha Castorimorpha Hystricomorpha
Hystricomorpha
(incl. Caviomorpha) Myomorpha SciuromorphaCombined range of all rodent species (not including introduced populations)Rodents (from Latin
Latin
rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws. About 40% of all mammal species are rodents; they are found in vast numbers on all continents except Antarctica
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