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Black July
Black July
Black July
(Tamil: கறுப்பு யூலை, translit. Kaṟuppu Yūlai; Sinhalese: කළු ජූලිය Kalu Juliya) is the common name used to refer to the anti-Tamil pogrom[3] and riots in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
during July 1983. The riots began as a "response" to a deadly ambush on 23 July 1983 by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, a Tamil militant group, that killed 13 Sri Lanka Army soldiers. Beginning in the capital Colombo
Colombo
on the night of 24 July 1983, anti-Tamil pogroms spread to other parts of the country. Over seven days, mobs, mainly Sinhalese, attacked Tamil targets, burning, looting, and killing
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Ranasinghe Premadasa
Sri Lankabhimanya
Sri Lankabhimanya
Ranasinghe Premadasa
Ranasinghe Premadasa
(Sinhalese: රණසිංහ ප්‍රේමදාස,Tamil: ரணசிங்க பிரேமதாசா; 23 June 1924 – 1 May 1993)[1] was the third President of Sri Lanka
President of Sri Lanka
from 2 January 1989 to 1 May 1993. Before that, he served as the Prime Minister
Prime Minister
in the government headed by J. R. Jayewardene from 6 February 1978 to 1 January 1989. He was awarded Sri Lanka's highest award to a civilian Sri Lankabhimanya
Sri Lankabhimanya
in 1986 by President Junius Richard Jayewardene, the first to receive in Sri Lankan history
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Sri Lanka Leftist Parties
LegislatureParliamentSpeaker Deputy Speaker Leader of the House Leader of the OppositionJudiciaryConstitutional Council Supreme CourtChief Justice: Priyasath DepCourt of Appeal High Courts District Courts Magistrate's Courts Primary Courts Labour TribunalElectionsElections Political parties Last election Next electionAdministrative geographyProvinces Districts Municipalities Wards Grama Niladhari divisionsForeign policyForeign relationsRelated issuesCivil War Sri Lanka PortalOther countries Atlasv t eDuring the Donoughmore period of political experimentation (1931–48), several Sri Lanka leftist parties were formed in British colonial Ceylon
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Missionaries
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.[1][2] The word "mission" originates from 1598 when the Jesuits
Jesuits
sent members abroad, derived from the Latin missionem (nom. missio), meaning "act of sending" or mittere, meaning "to send".[3] The word was used in light of its biblical usage; in the Latin translation of the Bible, Christ uses the word when sending the disciples to preach The gospel in his name
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Divide And Rule
Divide and rule
Divide and rule
(or divide and conquer, from Latin
Latin
dīvide et imperā) in politics and sociology is gaining and maintaining power by breaking up larger concentrations of power into pieces that individually have less power than the one implementing the strategy. The concept refers to a strategy that breaks up existing power structures, and especially prevents smaller power groups from linking up, causing rivalries and fomenting discord among the people.[1] Traiano Boccalini cites "divide et impera" in La bilancia politica[2] as a common principle in politics. The use of this technique is meant to empower the sovereign to control subjects, populations, or factions of different interests, who collectively might be able to oppose his rule
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Sinhala People
The Sinhalese (Sinhala: සිංහල ජාතිය Sinhala Jathiya, also known as Hela) are an Indo-Aryan-speaking ethnic group native to the island of Sri Lanka.[15] They constitute about 75% of the Sri Lankan population and number greater than 16.2 million.[16][2] The Sinhalese identity is based on language, historical heritage and religion. The Sinhalese people
Sinhalese people
speak the Sinhalese language, an Indo-Aryan language, and are predominantly Theravada
Theravada
Buddhists,[17] although a small percentage of Sinhalese follow branches of Christianity. The Sinhalese are mostly found in North central, Central, South, and West Sri Lanka
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English Language
English is a West Germanic language
West Germanic language
that was first spoken in early medieval England
England
and is now a global lingua franca.[4][5] Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea. It is closely related to the Frisian languages, but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic
North Germanic
language), as well as by Latin
Latin
and Romance languages, especially French.[6] English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English
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Official Language
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically a country's official language refers to the language used within government (e.g., courts, parliament, administration).[1] Since "the means of expression of a people cannot be changed by any law",[2] the term "official language" does not typically refer to the language used by a people or country, but by its government.[3] Worldwide, 178 countries have at least one official language, and 101 of these countries recognise more than one language. Many of the world's constitutions mention one or more official or national languages.[4][5] Some countries use the official language designation to empower indigenous groups by giving them access to the government in their native languages
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Sinhala Language
Sinhalese (/ˌsɪn(h)əˈliːz, ˌsɪŋ(ɡ)ə-/), known natively as Sinhala (Sinhalese: සිංහල; siṁhala [ˈsiŋɦələ]),[3] is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who make up the largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, numbering about 16 million.[4][5][6] Sinhalese is also spoken as a second language by other ethnic groups in Sri Lanka, totalling about four million.[7] It belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages.[5] Sinhalese is written using the Sinhalese script, which is one of the Brahmic scripts, a descendant of the ancient Indian Brahmi script
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Northern Province, Sri Lanka
The Northern Province (Tamil: வட மாகாணம் Vaṭa Mākāṇam; Sinhalese: උතුරු පළාත Uturu Paḷāta) is one of the nine provinces of Sri Lanka, the first level administrative division of the country. The provinces have existed since the 19th century but did not have any legal status until 1987 when the 13th Amendment to the Constitution of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
established provincial councils.[4][5] Between 1988 and 2006 the province was temporarily merged with the Eastern Province to form the North Eastern Province. The capital of the province is Jaffna
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British Ceylon
Ceylon (Sinhala: බ්‍රිතාන්‍ය ලංකාව, Britanya Lankava; Tamil: பிரித்தானிய இலங்கை, Birithaniya Ilangai) was a British Crown colony between 1815 and 1948
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Eastern Province, Sri Lanka
The Eastern Province (Tamil: கிழக்கு மாகாணம் Kil̮akku Mākāṇam; Sinhalese: නැගෙනහිර පළාත Næ̆gĕnahira Paḷāta) is one of the nine provinces of Sri Lanka, the first level administrative division of the country
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United National Party
The United National Party, often abbreviated as UNP (Sinhalese: එක්සත් ජාතික පක්ෂය, translit. Eksath Jāthika Pakshaya, Tamil: ஐக்கிய தேசியக் கட்சி, translit. Aikkiya Tēciyak Kaṭci), is a political party in Sri Lanka. It currently is the main ruling party in the government of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and is headed by Ranil Wickremesinghe. The UNP is considered to have right-leaning, pro-capitalist, and liberal conservative policies. At the last legislative elections in Sri Lanka, held on August 17, 2015, the UNP was the leading member of the coalition United National Front for Good Governance (UNFGG), which won 106 seats, an increase of 46 since the 2010 election, and 45.66% of the popular vote. It beat the United People's Freedom Alliance, a left-leaning coalition, which won 44.38% of the vote
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Automatic Weapon
An automatic firearm continuously fires rounds as long as the trigger is pressed or held and there is ammunition in the magazine/chamber. In contrast, a semi-automatic firearm fires one round with each individual trigger-pull.[1] Although all "semi-automatic", "burst fire", and "fully automatic" firearms are "automatic" in the technical sense that the firearm automatically cycles between rounds with each trigger pull, the terms "automatic weapon" and "automatic firearm" are conventionally reserved by firearm enthusiasts to describe fully automatic firearms
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Grenade
A grenade is a small weapon typically thrown by hand. Generally, a grenade consists of an explosive charge, a detonating mechanism, and firing pin to trigger the detonating mechanism. Once the soldier throws the grenade, the safety lever releases, the striker throws the safety lever away from the grenade body as it rotates to detonate the primer. The primer explodes and ignites the fuse (sometimes called the delay element). The fuse burns down to the detonator, which explodes the main charge. There are several types of grenades such as fragmentation grenades and stick grenades. Fragmentation grenades are probably the most common in armies. They are weapons that are designed to disperse lethal fragments on detonation. The body is generally made of a hard synthetic material or steel, which will provide some fragmentation as shards and splinters, though in modern grenades a pre-formed fragmentation matrix is often used
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Commander Of The Army (Sri Lanka)
The Commander of the Army is the title of the professional head of the Sri Lanka Army.[1] The current Commander of the Army is Lieutenant General Mahesh Senanayake.[2] It is a position comparable to that of Chief of the General Staff of the British Army.Contents1 History 2 Official Residence 3 List of Commanders (including Commanders of the Ceylon Army) 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] The post traces its roots to the post of General Officer Commanding, Ceylon, which was the title of the officer commanding the British Army units stationed in Ceylon prior to independence in 1948. After the formation of the Ceylon Army
Ceylon Army
in 1949, the title Commander of the Ceylon Army
Ceylon Army
was formally adopted although it was at times referred to as General Officer Commanding, Ceylon until as late as the 1960s. Brig
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