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Black
Black
Black
is the darkest color, the result of the absence or complete absorption of visible light. It is an achromatic color, literally a color without hue, like white (its opposite) and gray.[1] It is often used symbolically or figuratively to represent darkness, while white represents light.[2] Black
Black
ink is the most common color used for printing books, newspapers and documents, because it has the highest contrast with white paper and is the easiest to read. For the same reason, black text on a white screen is the most common format used on computer screens.[3] In color printing it is used along with the subtractive primaries cyan, yellow, and magenta, in order to help produce the darkest shades. Black
Black
and white have often been used to describe opposites; particularly truth and ignorance, good and evil, the "Dark Ages" versus Age of Enlightenment
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Brightness
Brightness
Brightness
is an attribute of visual perception in which a source appears to be radiating or reflecting light.[1] In other words, brightness is the perception elicited by the luminance of a visual target. It is not necessarily proportional to luminance. This is a subjective attribute/property of an object being observed and one of the color appearance parameters of color appearance models. Brightness refers to an absolute term and should not be confused with Lightness.[2] Terminology The adjective bright derives from an Old English beorht with the same meaning via metathesis giving Middle English briht. The word is from a Common Germanic
Common Germanic
*berhtaz, ultimately from a PIE root with a closely related meaning, *bhereg- "white, bright". "Brightness" was formerly used as a synonym for the photometric term luminance and (incorrectly) for the radiometric term radiance
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Old High German
Old High German
Old High German
(OHG, German: Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050. Coherent written texts do not appear until the second half of the 8th century, and some treat the period before 750 as "prehistoric" and date the start of Old High German proper to 750 for this reason
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Old Saxon Language
Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, was a Germanic language
Germanic language
and the earliest recorded form of Low German
Low German
(spoken nowadays in Northern Germany, the northeastern Netherlands, southern Denmark, the Americas and parts of Eastern Europe). It is a West Germanic language, closely related to the Anglo-Frisian
Anglo-Frisian
languages.[2] It has been documented from the 8th century until the 12th century, when it gradually evolved into Middle Low German. It was spoken throughout modern northwestern Germany, primarily in the coastal regions and in the eastern Netherlands
Netherlands
by Saxons, a Germanic tribe who inhabited the region of Saxony
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Spanish Language
The Spanish language
Spanish language
(/ˈspænɪʃ/ ( listen);  Español (help·info)), also called the Castilian language[4] (/kæˈstɪliən/ ( listen),  castellano (help·info)), is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain
Spain
and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin
Latin
America and Spain. It is usually considered the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.[5][6][7][8][9] Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
in the 5th century
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Ink
Ink
Ink
is a liquid or paste that contains pigments or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design. Ink
Ink
is used for drawing or writing with a pen, brush, or quill. Thicker inks, in paste form, are used extensively in letterpress and lithographic printing. Ink
Ink
can be a complex medium, composed of solvents, pigments, dyes, resins, lubricants, solubilizers, surfactants, particulate matter, fluorescents, and other materials
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Figurative Language
Literal and figurative language is a distinction within some fields of language analysis, in particular stylistics, rhetoric, and semantics.Literal language uses words exactly according to their conventionally accepted meanings or denotation. Figurative (or non-literal) language uses words in a way that deviates from their conventionally accepted definitions in order to convey a more complicated meaning or heightened effect.[1] Figurative language is often created by presenting words in such a way that they are equated, compared, or associated with normally unrelated meanings.Literal usage confers meaning to words, in the sense of the meaning they have by themselves, outside any figure of speech.[2] It maintains a consistent meaning regardless of the context,[3] with the intended meaning corresponding exactly to the
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Symbol
A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship. Symbols allow people to go beyond what is known or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different concepts and experiences. All communication (and data processing) is achieved through the use of symbols. Symbols take the form of words, sounds, gestures, ideas or visual images and are used to convey other ideas and beliefs. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for "STOP". On a map, a blue line might represent a river. Numerals are symbols for numbers. Alphabetic letters may be symbols for sounds. Personal names are symbols representing individuals. A red rose may symbolize love and compassion
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Absorption (electromagnetic Radiation)
In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom. Thus, the electromagnetic energy is transformed into internal energy of the absorber, for example thermal energy.[1] The reduction in intensity of a light wave propagating through a medium by absorption of a part of its photons is often called attenuation
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Italian Language
Italian ( italiano (help·info) [itaˈljaːno] or lingua italiana [ˈliŋɡwa itaˈljaːna]) is a Romance language. Italian is by most measures, together with the Sardinian language, the closest tongue to vulgar Latin
Latin
of the Romance languages.[7] Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City
Vatican City
and western Istria
Istria
(in Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia). It used to have official status in Albania, Malta
Malta
and Monaco, where it is still widely spoken, as well as in former Italian East Africa
Italian East Africa
and Italian North Africa regions where it plays a significant role in various sectors
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Paleolithic
The Paleolithic
Paleolithic
or Palaeolithic /ˌpæliːəˈlɪθɪk/ is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.[1] It extends from the earliest known use of stone tools by hominins c. 3.3 million years ago, to the end of the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
c. 11,650 cal BP.[2] The Paleolithic
Paleolithic
is followed in Europe by the Mesolithic, although the date of the transition varies geographically by several thousand years. During the Paleolithic, hominins grouped together in small societies such as bands, and subsisted by gathering plants and fishing, hunting or scavenging wild animals.[3] The Paleolithic
Paleolithic
is characterized by the use of knapped stone tools, although at the time humans also used wood and bone tools
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Manganese Oxide
Manganese oxide is any of a variety of manganese oxides and hydroxides.[1] These includeManganese(II) oxide, MnO (aka Ferrite Grade) Manganese(II,III) oxide, Mn3O4 Manganese(III) oxide, Mn2O3 Manganese dioxide, (manganese(IV) oxide), MnO2 Manganese(VI) oxide, MnO3 Manganese(VII) oxide, Mn2O7It may refer more specifically to the following manganese minerals:Birnessite Hausmannite Manganite Manganosite Psilomelane PyrolusiteManganese may also form mixed oxides with other metals such as Fe, Nb, Ta, ... :Bixbyite, a manganese iron oxide mineral Jacobsite, a manganese iron oxide mineral Columbite, also called niobite, niobite-tantalite and columbate Tantalite, a mineral group close to columbite Coltan, a mixture of columbite and tantalite Galaxite, a spinel mineral Todorokite, a rare complex hydrous manganese oxide mineralReferences[edit]^ Wells A.F
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Middle English
Middle English
Middle English
(ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest
Norman Conquest
(1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.[2] This stage of the development of the English language
English language
roughly followed the High to the Late Middle Ages. Middle English
Middle English
developed out of Late Old English, seeing many dramatic changes in its grammar, pronunciation and orthography. Writing customs during Middle English
Middle English
times varied widely, but by the end of the period, about 1470, aided by the invention of the printing press, a standard based on the London
London
dialect (Chancery Standard) had become established
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Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages. Proto-Germanic developed from pre-Proto-Germanic into three branches during the first half of the first millennium of the Common Era: West Germanic, East Germanic
East Germanic
and North Germanic, which however remained in contact over a considerable time, especially the Ingvaeonic languages (including English), which arose from West Germanic dialects and remained in continued contact with North Germanic. A defining feature of Proto-Germanic is the completion of Grimm's law, a set of sound changes that occurred between its status as a dialect of Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
and its gradual divergence into a separate language
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