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Bisa Language
Bissa (Bisa) is a Mande language that is spoken by the Bissa people of Burkina Faso, Ghana
Ghana
and (marginally) Togo
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Bisa Language (Zambia)
Language
Language
is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Questions concerning the philosophy of language, such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated at least since Gorgias
Gorgias
and Plato
Plato
in ancient Greece. Thinkers such as Rousseau
Rousseau
have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant have held that it originated from rational and logical thought. 20th-century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky. Estimates of the number of human languages in the world vary between 5,000 and 7,000
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W (letter)
W (named double-u,[note 1] plural double-ues)[1][2] is the 23rd letter of the modern English and ISO basic Latin alphabets.Contents1 History 2 Use in writing systems2.1 English 2.2 Other languages 2.3 Other systems3 Other uses 4 Name 5 Related characters5.1 Ancestors, descendants and siblings 5.2 Ligatures and abbreviations6 Computing codes 7 Other representations 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksHistoryA 1693 book printing that uses the "double u" alongside the modern letterThe sounds /w/ (spelled ⟨V⟩) and /b/ (spelled ⟨B⟩) of Classical Latin
Classical Latin
developed into a bilabial fricative /β/ between vowels in Early Medieval Latin. Therefore, ⟨V⟩ no longer adequately represented the labial-velar approximant sound /w/ of Germanic phonology. The Germanic /w/ phoneme was therefore written as ⟨VV⟩ or ⟨uu⟩ (⟨u⟩ and ⟨v⟩ becoming distinct only by the Early Modern period
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Ŋ
Eng or engma (capital: Ŋ, lowercase: ŋ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, used to represent a velar nasal (as in English singing) in the written form of some languages and in the International Phonetic Alphabet.Contents1 History 2 Appearance 3 Usage3.1 Technical transcription 3.2 Vernacular orthographies4 Computer encoding 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] The First Grammatical Treatise, a 12th-century work on the phonology of the Old Icelandic language, uses a single grapheme for the eng sound, shaped like a g with a stroke ⟨g⟩
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O (letter)
O (named o /oʊ/, plural oes)[1] is the 15th letter and the fourth vowel in the modern English alphabet
English alphabet
and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is used in words such as opulent and orangutan, as well as names such as Ophelia and Oprah.Contents1 History 2 Use in writing systems2.1 English 2.2 Other languages 2.3 Other systems3 Related characters3.1 Descendants and related characters in the Latin alphabet 3.2 Derived signs, symbols and abbreviations 3.3 Ancestors and siblings in other alphabets4 Computing codes 5 Other representations 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] Its graphic form has remained fairly constant from Phoenician times until today. The name of the Phoenician letter was ʿeyn, meaning "eye", and indeed its shape originates simply as a drawing of a human eye (possibly inspired by the corresponding Egyptian hieroglyph, cf. Proto-Sinaitic script)
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Ɔ
Open o (majuscule: Ɔ, minuscule: ɔ) is a letter of the extended Latin alphabet. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, it represents the open-mid back rounded vowel. It is used in the orthographies of many African languages
African languages
using the African reference alphabet. The Yucatec Maya language
Yucatec Maya language
used Ɔ as a consonant in the orthography of the Colonial period. Now dz or tz' is preferred.Contents1 Unicode 2 Related characters2.1 Descendants and related characters in the Latin alphabet 2.2 Similar looking letters3 See also 4 ReferencesUnicode[edit]Character Ɔ ɔ Unicode
Unicode
name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER OPEN O LATIN SMALL LETTER OPEN OEncodings decimal hex decimal hexUnicode 390 U+0186 596 U+0254UTF-8 198 134 C6 86 201 148 C9 94Numeric character reference Ɔ Ɔ ɔ ɔOn the Mac OS
Mac OS
U.S
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P (letter)
P (named pee /piː/[1] ) is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.Contents1 History 2 Use in writing systems 3 Related characters3.1 Ancestors, descendants and siblings 3.2 Derived ligatures, abbreviations, signs and symbols4 Computing codes 5 Other representations 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksHistoryPhoenician P Archaic Greek Pi Greek Pi Cyrillic Pe Etruscan P Latin PUse in writing systems In English orthography and most other European languages, ⟨p⟩ represents the sound /p/. A common digraph in English is ⟨ph⟩, which represents the sound /f/, and can be used to transliterate ⟨φ⟩ phi in loanwords from Greek. In German, the digraph ⟨pf⟩ is common, representing a labial affricate /pf/. Most English words beginning with ⟨p⟩ are of foreign origin, primarily French, Latin, Greek, and Slavic;[citation needed] these languages preserve Proto-Indo-European initial *p
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R (letter)
R (named ar/or /ɑːr/[1]) is the 18th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.Contents1 History1.1 Antiquity 1.2 Cursive2 Name 3 Use in writing systems3.1 English 3.2 Other languages 3.3 Other systems4 Related characters4.1 Descendants and related characters in the Latin alphabet 4.2 Calligraphic variants in the Latin alphabet 4.3 Ancestors and siblings in other alphabets 4.4 Abbreviations, signs and symbols5 Physics 6 Encoding 7 Other representations 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksHistory[edit]Egyptian hieroglyph tp (D1) Phoenician Resh Archaic Greek/Old Italic Rho Roman square capital R 15th century Florentine inscriptional capital blackletter (Fraktur) German kurrent modern cursive ( D'Nealian<
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S (letter)
S (named ess /ɛs/,[1] plural esses[2]) is the 19th letter in the Modern English alphabet
English alphabet
and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.Contents1 History1.1 Origin 1.2 Long s2 Use in writing systems 3 Related characters3.1 Descendants and related characters in the Latin alphabet 3.2 Derived signs, symbols and abbreviations 3.3 Ancestors and siblings in other alphabets4 Computing codes 5 Other representations 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksHistory Origin Further information: Shin (letter), Sigma, San (letter), and Sho (letter) Northwest Semitic šîn represented a voiceless postalveolar fricative /ʃ/ (as in 'ship'). It originated most likely as a pictogram of a tooth (שנא) and represented the phoneme /ʃ/ via the acrophonic principle.[3] Greek did not have a /ʃ/ phoneme, so the derived Greek letter Sigma (Σ) came to represent the voiceless alveolar sibilant /s/
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T (letter)
T (named tee /tiː/[1]) is the 20th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet
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U (letter)
U (named u /juː/, plural ues[1][2]) is the 21st letter and the fifth vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is preceded by T, and is followed by V.Contents1 History 2 Use in writing systems2.1 English 2.2 Other languages3 Other uses 4 Related characters4.1 Ancestors, descendants and siblings 4.2 Ligatures and abbreviations5 Computing codes 6 Other representations 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] The letter u ultimately comes from the Phoenician letter waw by way of the letter y. See the letter y for details. During the late Middle Ages, two forms of 'v' developed, which were both used for its ancestor 'u' and modern 'v'. The pointed form 'v' was written at the beginning of a word, while a rounded form 'u' was used in the middle or end, regardless of sound. So whereas 'valour' and 'excuse' appeared as in modern printing, 'have' and 'upon' were printed 'haue' and 'vpon', respectively
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Ʋ
The letter V with hook (Upper case Ʋ, minuscule: ʋ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, based on an italic form of V. It is used in the orthographies of some African languages
African languages
such as Ewe, and Shona from 1931 to 1955 to write [β]
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V (letter)
V (named vee /viː/[1]) is the 22nd letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin
Latin
alphabet.Contents1 History 2 Letter 3 Name in other languages 4 Use in writing systems4.1 Other systems5 Related characters5.1 Descendants and related letters in the Latin
Latin
alphabet 5.2 Ancestors and siblings in other alphabets 5.3 Ligatures and abbreviations6 Computing codes 7 Other representations 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksHistory[edit]Ancient Corinthian vase depicting Perseus, Andromeda and Ketos. The inscriptions denoting the depicted persons are written in an archaic form of the Greek alphabet
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Y (letter)
Y (named wye[1] /waɪ/, plural wyes)[2] is the 25th and penultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. In the English writing system, it sometimes represents a vowel and sometimes a consonant.Contents1 Name 2 History2.1 Vowel 2.2 Consonant 2.3 Confusion in writing with the letter thorn3 Use in writing systems3.1 English 3.2 Other languages 3.3 Other systems4 Other uses 5 Related characters5.1 Descendants and related characters in the Latin alphabet 5.2 Ancestors and siblings in other alphabets 5.3 Derived signs, symbols and abbreviations6 Computing codes 7 Other representations 8 Notes 9 References 10 External linksName In Latin, Y was named I graeca ("Greek I"), since the classical Greek sound /y/, similar to modern German ü or French u, was not a native sound for Latin speakers, and the letter was initially only used to spell foreign words
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N (letter)
N (named en /ɛn/[1]) is the fourteenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin
Latin
alphabet.Contents1 History 2 Use in writing systems 3 Other uses 4 Related characters4.1 Descendants and related characters in the Latin
Latin
alphabet 4.2 Ancestors and siblings in other alphabets 4.3 Derived signs, symbols and abbreviations5 Computing codes 6 Other representations 7 References 8 External linksHistoryThis section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Egyptian hieroglyph Phoenician Nun Etruscan N Greek NuOne of the most common hieroglyphs, snake, was used in Egyptian writing to stand for a sound like the English ⟨J⟩, because the Egyptian word for "snake" was djet
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Z (letter)
Z (named zed /zɛd/ or zee /ziː/[1]) is the 26th and final letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.Contents1 Name and pronunciation 2 History2.1 Semitic 2.2 Greek 2.3 Etruscan 2.4 Latin 2.5 Early English 2.6 Last letter of the alphabet3 Variant and derived forms 4 Use in writing systems4.1 English 4.2 Other languages 4.3 Other systems5 Other uses 6 Related characters6.1 Descendants and related characters in the Latin alphabet 6.2 Ancestors and siblings in other alphabets7 Computing codes 8 Other representations 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksName and pronunciation[edit] In most English-speaking countries, including the United Kingdom, Canada, India, Ireland, New Zealand, and Australia, the letter's name is zed /zɛd/, reflecting its derivation from the Greek zeta (this dates to Latin, which borrowed X, Y, and Z from Greek, along with their names), but in American English its name i
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