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Biofector
A Bioeffector is a viable microorganism or active natural compound which directly or indirectly affects plant performance (Biofertilizer), and thus has the potential to reduce fertilizer and pesticide use in crop production.[1]Contents1 Types 2 Research and Public Dissemination 3 External links 4 ReferencesTypes[edit] Bioeffectors have a direct or indirect effect on plant performance by influencing the functional implementation or activation of biological mechanisms, particularly those interfering with soil-plant-microbe interactions.[2] In contrast to conventional fertilizers and pesticides, the effectiveness of bioeffectors is not based on a substantial direct input of mineral plant nutrients, either in inorganic or organic forms.Products in use are:Microbial residues, Composting and fermentation products, Plant
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Microorganism
A microorganism, or microbe,[a] is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures
Jain scriptures
from 6th-century-BC India and the 1st-century-BC book On Agriculture
Agriculture
by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch
Robert Koch
discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse
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Biofertilizer
A Bio fertilizer (also bio-fertilizer) is a substance which contains living microorganisms which, when applied to seeds, plant surfaces, or soil, colonize the rhizosphere or the interior of the plant and promotes growth by increasing the supply or availability of primary nutrients to the host plant.[1] Bio-fertilizers add nutrients through the natural processes of nitrogen fixation, solubilizing phosphorus, and stimulating plant growth through the synthesis of growth-promoting substances. Bio-fertilizers can be expected to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. The microorganisms in bio-fertilizers restore the soil's natural nutrient cycle and build soil organic matter. Through the use of bio-fertilizers, healthy plants can be grown, while enhancing the sustainability and the health of the soil. Since they play several roles, a preferred scientific term for such beneficial bacteria is "plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria" (PGPR)
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Volker Roemheld
Volker Roemheld (born 22 November 1941 in Schwaig near Nuremberg, died 27 November 2013 in Stuttgart) was a German agricultural scientist, plant physiologist and soil biologist at Hohenheim University.[1]Contents1 Biography 2 Research focus 3 Publications 4 Membership and honorary positions 5 Editorial boards 6 References 7 External linksBiography[edit] After attending school Volker Rhoemheld studied chemical engineering at the Ohm Polytechnic in Nuremberg, followed by an appointment in the pharmaceutical firm Dr. R. Pfleger Chemie in Bamberg (1960-1964). He then absolved an apprenticeship in gardening in Kassel (assistant’s examination 1966) and went on to study horticulture at the Technical University of Berlin (1966-1970). He won a stipendium from the German National Academy and visited Leeds University to work in the Institute of Botany under Prof. H.W. Woolhouse on the theme: Iron uptake by various chlorosis-resistant ecotypes
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Torsten Müller
Torsten Müller (born 12 July 1961 in Kassel, West Germany) is an agricultural scientist at the University of Hohenheim. He is chairman of the examination and admissions board of the European Master´s Degree Course „Organic Agriculture and Food Systems" and Dean of Education of the Agricultural Science Faculty in Hohenheim.[1]Contents1 Biography 2 Memberships and Affiliations 3 Field of Interest and Publications 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] After attending school in Kassel he passed a practical examination in agriculture. He studied Agricultural Science at the George-August University in Goettingen, Germany, and passed the appropriate examinations in 1983, followed an Agricultural Engineering Diploma in 1986 and a Ph. D
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International Biocontrol Manufacturers' Association
The International Biocontrol Manufacturers' Association (IBMA) is the worldwide association of the biocontrol industry, with its head office in Brussels.[1] The association sponsors the Annual Biocontrol Industry Meeting held in Basel, Switzerland.Contents1 History 2 Scope 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] In 1995, the IBMA was founded in Brighton (England), whose founding president was Bernard Blum
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Mycorrhiza
A mycorrhiza (from Greek μύκης mýkēs, "fungus", and ῥίζα rhiza, "root"; pl. mycorrhiza or mycorrhizas or (mainly U.S.) mycorrhizae) is a symbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a vascular host plant.[1] The term mycorrhiza refers to the role of the fungi in the plants' rhizosphere, its root system. Mycorrhizae play important roles in soil biology and soil chemistry. In a mycorrhizal association, the fungus colonizes the host plant's root tissues, either intracellularly as in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF or AM), or extracellularly as in ectomycorrhizal fungi
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Rhizobia
Rhizobia
Rhizobia
are bacteria that fix nitrogen (diazotrophs) after becoming established inside root nodules of legumes (Fabaceae). To express genes for nitrogen fixation, rhizobia require a plant host; they cannot independently fix nitrogen.[1] In general, they are Gram-negative, motile, non-sporulating rods.Contents1 History 2 Taxonomy 3 Importance in agriculture 4 Symbiotic relationship4.1 Infection and signal exchange 4.2 Nature of the mutualism 4.3 The sanctions hypothesis 4.4 The partner choice hypothesis 4.5 Evolutionary history5 Other diazotrophs 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit] The first known species of rhizobia, Rhizobium
Rhizobium
leguminosarum, was identified in 1889, and all further species were initially placed in the Rhizobium
Rhizobium
genus
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Biological Pest Control
Biological control or biocontrol is a method of controlling pests such as insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases using other organisms.[1] It relies on predation, parasitism, herbivory, or other natural mechanisms, but typically also involves an active human management role. It can be an important component of integrated pest management (IPM) programs. There are three basic strategies for biological pest control: classical (importation), where a natural enemy of a pest is introduced in the hope of achieving control; inductive (augmentation), in which a large population of natural enemies are administered for quick pest control; and inoculative (conservation), in which measures are taken to maintain natural enemies through regular reestablishment.[2] Natural enemies of insect pests, also known as biological control agents, include predators, parasitoids, pathogens, and competitors. Biological control agents of plant diseases are most often referred to as antagonists
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Pest (organism)
A pest is a plant or animal detrimental to humans or human concerns including crops, livestock, and forestry. The term is also used of organisms that cause a nuisance, such as in the home. An older usage is of a deadly epidemic disease, specifically plague. In its broadest sense, a pest is a competitor of humanity.[1][2]Contents1 Concept 2 By taxon2.1 Vertebrate pests2.1.1 Birds 2.1.2 Amphibians 2.1.3 Mammals2.2 Invertebrates2.2.1 Insects and arachnids2.2.1.1 Agricultural and domestic arthropods 2.2.1.2 Tree and forest pests 2.2.1.3 Ectoparasites2.2.2 Nematodes 2.2.3 Gastropod
Gastropod
molluscs2.3 Plant diseases 2.4 Weeds3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksConcept[edit] A pest is any living organism, whether animal, plant or fungus, which is invasive or troublesome to plants or animals, human or human concerns, livestock, or human structures
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Pathogens
In biology, a pathogen (Greek: πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a germ in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.[1][2] Typically the term is used to describe an infectious agent such as a virus, bacterium, protozoa, prion, a fungus, or other micro-organism.[3][4] The scientific study of pathogens is called Pathology. There are several substrates including pathways where the pathogens can invade a host. The principal pathways have different episodic time frames, but soil contamination has the longest or most persistent potential for harboring a pathogen
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Pesticide
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.[1] The term pesticide includes all of the following: herbicide, insecticides (which may include insect growth regulators, termiticides, etc.) nematicide, molluscicide, piscicide, avicide, rodenticide, bactericide, insect repellent, animal repellent, antimicrobial, fungicide, disinfectant (antimicrobial), and sanitizer.[2] The most common of these are herbicides which account for approximately 80% of all pesticide use.[3] Most pesticides are intended to serve as plant protection products (also known as crop protection products), which in general, protect plants from weeds, fungi, or insects.A crop-duster spraying pesticide on a fieldA Lite-Trac
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Fertilizer
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.Contents1 Mechanism 2 Classification2.1 Single nutrient ("straight") fertilizers 2.2 Multinutrient fertilizers2.2.1 Binary (NP, NK, PK) fertilizers 2.2.2 NPK fertilizers2.3 Micronutrients3 Production3.1 Nitrogen
Nitrogen
fertilizers 3.2
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Annual Biocontrol Industry Meeting
The Annual Biocontrol Industry Meeting (ABIM) in Basel is an annual conference of manufacturers of biological plant protection products worldwide. Every year since 2005, 700 – 800 delegates from 300 – 400 firms take part in this English-speaking meeting.[1][2][3] The goal of the conference is the exchange of business and scientific experience and presentation of commercial and scientific advances on the subject of the protection of plants and pest control in plant crops by natural (biological) methods, with particular reference to Bioeffectors. The meeting takes place every autumn in Basel, and is organised by the Swiss Research Institute for Biological Agriculture (FiBL)
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University Of Hohenheim
The University of Hohenheim
University of Hohenheim
(German: Universität Hohenheim) is a campus university located in the south of Stuttgart, Germany. Founded in 1818, it is Stuttgart's oldest university. Its primary areas of specialisation had traditionally been agricultural and natural sciences. Today, however, the majority of its students are enrolled in one of the many study programs offered by the faculty of business, economics and social sciences
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