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Biodiversity
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of "bio" (life) and "diversity", generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth. According to the United Nations Environment Programme
United Nations Environment Programme
(UNEP), biodiversity typically measures variation at the genetic, the species, and the ecosystem level.[1] Terrestrial biodiversity tends to be greater near the equator,[2] which seems to be the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity.[3] Biodiversity
Biodiversity
is not distributed evenly on Earth, and is richest in the tropics
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Western Australia
Western Australia[a] (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Great Australian Bight
Great Australian Bight
and Southern Ocean to the south,[b] the Northern Territory
Northern Territory
to the north-east and South Australia
Australia
to the south-east. Western Australia
Australia
is Australia's largest state, with a total land area of 2,529,875 square kilometres (976,790 sq mi), and the second-largest country subdivision in the world, surpassed only by Russia's Sakha Republic
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Sea Surface Temperature
Sea
Sea
surface temperature (SST) is the water temperature close to the ocean's surface. The exact meaning of surface varies according to the measurement method used, but it is between 1 millimetre (0.04 in) and 20 metres (70 ft) below the sea surface. Air masses in the Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
are highly modified by sea surface temperatures within a short distance of the shore. Localized areas of heavy snow can form in bands downwind of warm water bodies within an otherwise cold air mass. Warm sea surface temperatures are known to be a cause of tropical cyclogenesis over the Earth's oceans. Tropical cyclones can also cause a cool wake, due to turbulent mixing of the upper 30 metres (100 ft) of the ocean. SST changes diurnally, like the air above it, but to a lesser degree. There is less SST variation on breezy days than on calm days
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Sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone
is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments. Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar because they are the most resistant minerals to weathering processes at the Earth's surface, as seen in Bowen's reaction series. Like uncemented sand, sandstone may be any color due to impurities within the minerals, but the most common colors are tan, brown, yellow, red, grey, pink, white, and black. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features, certain colors of sandstone have been strongly identified with certain regions. Rock formations that are primarily composed of sandstone usually allow the percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities, making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs
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Fossils
A fossil (from Classical Latin
Latin
fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging")[1] is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age. Examples include bones, shells, exoskeletons, stone imprints of animals or microbes, hair, petrified wood, oil, coal, and DNA
DNA
remnants. The totality of fossils is known as the fossil record. Paleontology
Paleontology
is the study of fossils: their age, method of formation, and evolutionary significance. Specimens are usually considered to be fossils if they are over 10,000 years old.[2] The oldest fossils are from around 3.48 billion years old[3][4][5] to 4.1 billion years old.[6][7] The observation in the 19th century that certain fossils were associated with certain rock strata led to the recognition of a geological timescale and the relative ages of different fossils
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Hadean
The Hadean
Hadean
( /ˈheɪdiən/) is a geologic eon of the Earth
Earth
predating the Archean. It began with the formation of the Earth
Earth
about 4.6 billion years ago and ended, as defined by the ICS, 4 billion years ago.[1] As of 2016[update], the ICS describes its status as informal.[2] The geologist Preston Cloud coined the term in 1972, originally to label the period before the earliest-known rocks on Earth. W. Brian Harland later coined an almost synonymous term: the "Priscoan period"
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Crust (geology)
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite. It is usually distinguished from the underlying mantle by its chemical makeup; however, in the case of icy satellites, it may be distinguished based on its phase (solid crust vs. liquid mantle). The crusts of Earth, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Io, and other planetary bodies formed via igneous processes, and were later modified by erosion, impact cratering, volcanism, and sedimentation. Most terrestrial planets have fairly uniform crusts. Earth, however, has two distinct types: continental crust and oceanic crust
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Eoarchean
The Eoarchean
Eoarchean
( /ˌiːoʊ.ɑːrˈkiːən/; also spelled Eoarchaean) is the first era of the Archean
Archean
Eon of the geologic record for which the Earth has a solid crust. It spans 400 million years from the end of the Hadean
Hadean
Eon 4 billion years ago (4000 Mya) to the start of the Paleoarchean
Paleoarchean
Era 3600 Mya. The beginnings of life on Earth have been dated to this era and evidence of cyanobacteria date to 3500 Mya, just outside this era
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Age Of The Earth
The age of the Earth
Earth
is approximately 4.54 ± 0.05 billion years (4.54 × 109 years ± 1%).[1][2][3][4] This age may represent the age of the Earth’s accretion, of core formation, or of the material from which the Earth
Earth
formed.[5] This dating is based on evidence from radiometric age-dating of meteorite[6] ma
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Carbon
Carbon
Carbon
(from Latin: carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table.[13] Three isotopes occur naturally, 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is a radionuclide, decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years.[14] Carbon
Carbon
is one of the few elements known since antiquity.[15] Carbon
Carbon
is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. Carbon's abundance, its unique diversity of organic compounds, and its unusual ability to form polymers at the temperatures commonly encountered on Earth
Earth
enables this element to serve as a common element of all known life
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Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
(/səˈskætʃəwən, sæ-, -ˌwɒn/ ( listen)) is a prairie and boreal province in western Canada, the only province without natural borders. It has an area of 651,900 square kilometres (251,700 sq mi), nearly 10 percent of which (59,366 square kilometres (22,900 sq mi)) is fresh water, composed mostly of rivers, reservoirs, and the province's 100,000 lakes. Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
is bordered on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the east by Manitoba, to the northeast by Nunavut, and on the south by the U.S. states of Montana
Montana
and North Dakota. As of late 2017, Saskatchewan's population was estimated at 1,163,925.[7] Residents primarily live in the southern prairie half of the province, while the northern boreal half is mostly forested and sparsely populated
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Tonne
The tonne (/tʌn/ ( listen)) (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;[1][2][3][4] or one megagram (Mg); it is equivalent to approximately 2,204.6 pounds,[5] 1.102 short tons (US) or 0.984 long tons (imperial). Although not part of the SI, the tonne is accepted for use with SI units and prefixes by the International Committee for Weights and Measures.[6]Contents1 Symbol and abbreviations 2 Origin and spelling 3 Conversions 4 Derived units 5 Alternative usage5.1 Use of mass as proxy for energy 5.2 Unit of force6 See also 7 Notes and references 8 External linksSymbol and abbreviations[edit] The SI symbol for the tonne is "t", adopted at the same time as the unit in 1879.[2] Its use is also official for the metric ton in the United States, having been adopted by the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology.[7] It
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Base Pair
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds. They form the building blocks of the DNA double helix, and contribute to the folded structure of both DNA
DNA
and RNA. Dictated by specific hydrogen bonding patterns, Watson-Crick base pairs (guanine-cytosine and adenine-thymine) allow the DNA
DNA
helix to maintain a regular helical structure that is subtly dependent on its nucleotide sequence.[1] The complementary nature of this based-paired structure provides a backup copy of all genetic information encoded within double-stranded DNA
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DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid (/diˈɒksiˌraɪboʊnjʊˈkliːɪk, -ˈkleɪ.ɪk/ ( listen);[1] DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. DNA
DNA
and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life. Most DNA
DNA
molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix. The two DNA
DNA
strands are called polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides.[2][3] Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases (cytosine [C], guanine [G], adenine [A] or thymine [T]), a sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group
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Metasediment
In geology, metasedimentary rock is a type of metamorphic rock. Such a rock was first formed through the deposition and solidification of sediment. Then, the rock was buried underneath subsequent rock and was subjected to high pressures and temperatures, causing the rock to recrystallize. The overall composition of a metasedimentary rock can be used to identify the original sedimentary rock, even where they have been subject to high-grade metamorphism and intense deformation.[1] Types of metasedimentary rocks[edit]Sedimentary rock Metamorphic equivalentPure Limestone Marble[2]Impure (Silica or clay-rich) Limestone Calc–silicate rock[2]Mudstone PeliteSiltstone Semi-peliteSandstone Psammite, Quartzite[2]Conglomerate MetaconglomerateShale SlateSee also[edit]Metavolcanic rockReferences[edit]^ Vernon, R.H. & Clarke, G.L. 2008. Principles of metamorphic petrology, Cambridge University Press, 460pp. ^ a b c Arndt, Nicholas (2011)
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Western Greenland
Kitaa, originally Vestgrønland ("West Greenland"), is a former administrative division (landsdel) of Greenland. It was by far the most populated of the divisions, being home to almost 90% of the total population. The divisions were de facto replaced statistical regions after Greenland
Greenland
got home rule in 1979. It is bordered in the west by the Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean. To the east lies Tunu. All but three of the island territory's municipalities were located in West Greenland
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