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Biochemistry
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.[1] By controlling information flow through biochemical signaling and the flow of chemical energy through metabolism, biochemical processes give rise to the complexity of life
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Pest Control
Pest control
Pest control
is the regulation or management of a species defined as a pest, a member of the animal kingdom that impacts adversely on human activities. The human response depends on the importance of the damage done, and will range from tolerance, through deterrence and management, to attempts to completely eradicate the pest. Pest control measures may be performed as part of an integrated pest management strategy. In agriculture, pests are kept at bay by cultural, chemical and biological means. Ploughing
Ploughing
and cultivation of the soil before sowing reduces the pest burden and there is a modern trend to limit the use of pesticides as far as possible. This can be achieved by monitoring the crop, only applying insecticides when necessary, and by growing varieties and crops which are resistant to pests
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Chemical Energy
In chemistry, chemical energy is the potential of a chemical substance to undergo a transformation through a chemical reaction to transform other chemical substances. Examples include batteries, food, gasoline, and more. Breaking or making of chemical bonds involves energy, which may be either absorbed or evolved from a chemical system. A very common misconception is that energy is released when bonds are broken, whereas energy is required to break bonds. Energy
Energy
that can be released (or absorbed) because of a reaction between a set of chemical substances is equal to the difference between the energy content of the products and the reactants, if the initial and final temperatures are the same. This change in energy can be estimated from the bond energies of the various chemical bonds in the reactants and products
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Fertilizer
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.Contents1 Mechanism 2 Classification2.1 Single nutrient ("straight") fertilizers 2.2 Multinutrient fertilizers2.2.1 Binary (NP, NK, PK) fertilizers 2.2.2 NPK fertilizers2.3 Micronutrients3 Production3.1 Nitrogen
Nitrogen
fertilizers 3.2
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Nutritional Deficiencies
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.[3][1] It may involve calories, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins or minerals.[1] Not enough nutrients is called undernutrition or undernourishment while too much is called overnutrition.[2] Malnutrition is often used to specifically refer to undernutrition where an individual is not getting enough calories, protein, or micronutrients.[2][12] If undernutrition occurs during pregnancy, or before two years of age, it may result in permanent problems with physical and mental development.[1] Extreme undernourishment, known as starvation, may have symptoms that include: a short height, thin body, very poor energy levels, and swollen legs and abdomen.[1][2] People also often get infections and are frequently cold.[2] The symptoms of micronutrient deficiencies depend on the micronutrient that is lacking.[2] Undernourishment is most often
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Disease
A disease is a particular abnormal condition that affects part or all of an organism not caused by external force[1][2] (see 'injury') and that consists of a disorder of a structure or function, usually serving as an evolutionary disadvantage. The study of disease is called pathology, which includes the study of cause. Disease
Disease
is often construed as a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs.[3] It may be caused by external factors such as pathogens or by internal dysfunctions, particularly of the immune system, such as an immunodeficiency, or by a hypersensitivity, including allergies and autoimmunity. When caused by pathogens (e.g. malaria by Plasmodium ssp.), the term disease is often misleadingly used even in the scientific literature in place of its causal agent, the pathogen
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Pharmaceutical Drug
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply as drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.[1][2][3] Drug
Drug
therapy (pharmacotherapy) is an important part of the medical field and relies on the science of pharmacology for continual advancement and on pharmacy for appropriate management. Drugs are classified in various ways. One of the key divisions is by level of control, which distinguishes prescription drugs (those that a pharmacist dispenses only on the order of a physician, physician assistant, or qualified nurse) from over-the-counter drugs (those that consumers can order for themselves)
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Agriculture
Agriculture
Agriculture
is the cultivation and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.[1] Agriculture
Agriculture
was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years; people gathered wild grains at least 105,000 years ago, and began to plant them around 11,500 years ago, before they became domesticated. Pigs, sheep, and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Crops originate from at least 11 regions of the world
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Protein Biosynthesis
Protein
Protein
synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export. Translation, the assembly of amino acids by ribosomes, is an essential part of the biosynthetic pathway, along with generation of messenger RNA
RNA
(mRNA), aminoacylation of transfer RNA
RNA
(tRNA), co-translational transport, and post-translational modification. Protein
Protein
biosynthesis is strictly regulated at multiple steps.[1] They are principally during transcription (phenomena of RNA synthesis from DNA
DNA
template) and translation (phenomena of amino acid assembly from RNA). The cistron DNA
DNA
is transcribed into the first of a series of RNA intermediates. The last version is used as a template in synthesis of a polypeptide chain
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Metal
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal"[1][2]) is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity. Metals are generally malleable—that is, they can be hammered or pressed permanently out of shape without breaking or cracking—as well as fusible (able to be fused or melted) and ductile (able to be drawn out into a thin wire).[3] Around 90 of the 118 elements in the periodic table are metals; the others are nonmetals or metalloids, though elements near the boundaries of each category have been assigned variably to either (hence the lack of an exact count). Some elements appear in both metallic and non-metallic forms. Astrophysicists use the term "metal" to refer collectively to all elements in a star that are heavier than the lightest two, hydrogen and helium, and not just traditional metals
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Water
Water
Water
is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms. Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms that are connected by covalent bonds. Strictly speaking, water refers to the liquid state of a substance that prevails at standard ambient temperature and pressure; but it often refers also to its solid state (ice) or its gaseous state (steam or water vapor). It also occurs in nature as snow, glaciers, ice packs and icebergs, clouds, fog, dew, aquifers, and atmospheric humidity. Water
Water
covers 71% of the Earth's surface.[1] It is vital for all known forms of life
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Inorganic
A chemical compound is termed inorganic if it fulfills one or more of the following criteria:most of them do not contain carbon It cannot be found or incorporated into a living organismThere is no clear or universally agreed-upon distinction between organic and inorganic compounds
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Ion
An ion (/ˈaɪən, -ɒn/)[1] is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons). A cation is a positively-charged ion, while an anion is negatively charged. Because of their opposite electric charges, cations and anions attract each other and readily form ionic compounds, such as salts. Ions can be created by chemical means, such as the dissolution of a salt into water, or by physical means, such as passing a direct current through a conducting solution, which will dissolve the anode via ionization. Ions consisting of only a single atom are atomic or monatomic ions
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Genetic Code
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material ( DNA
DNA
or m RNA
RNA
sequences) into proteins. Translation is accomplished by the ribosome, which links amino acids in an order specified by messenger RNA
RNA
(mRNA), using transfer RNA
RNA
(tRNA) molecules to carry amino acids and to read the m RNA
RNA
three nucleotides at a time. The genetic code is highly similar among all organisms and can be expressed in a simple table with 64 entries.[1] The code defines how sequences of nucleotide triplets, called codons, specify which amino acid will be added next during protein synthesis. With some exceptions,[2] a three-nucleotide codon in a nucleic acid sequence specifies a single amino acid. The vast majority of genes are encoded with a single scheme (see the RNA
RNA
codon table)
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Organ (anatomy)
Organs are collections of tissues with a similar function. Plant
Plant
and animal life relies on many organs that coexist in organ systems.[2] Organs are composed of main tissue, parenchyma, and "sporadic" tissues, stroma. The main tissue is that which is unique for the specific organ, such as the myocardium, the main tissue of the heart, while sporadic tissues include the nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissues. The main tissues that make up an organ tend to have common embryologic origins, such as arising from the same germ layer. Functionally related organs often cooperate to form whole organ systems. Organs exist in all organisms. In single-celled organisms such as bacteria the functional analogue of an organ is known as an organelle
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Cell (biology)
The cell (from Latin
Latin
cella, meaning "small room"[1]) is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the "building blocks of life"
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