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Billy Wilder
Samuel "Billy" Wilder (/ˈwaɪldər/; German: [ˈvɪldɐ]; June 22, 1906 – March 27, 2002) was an Austrian-American filmmaker, screenwriter, producer, artist, and journalist whose career spanned more than five decades. He is regarded as one of the most brilliant and versatile filmmakers of Hollywood's golden age. With The Apartment, Wilder became the first person to win Academy Awards
Academy Awards
as producer, director, and screenwriter for the same film.[1] Wilder became a screenwriter in the late 1920s while living in Berlin. After the rise of the Nazi Party, he left for Paris, where he made his directorial debut. He moved to Hollywood
Hollywood
in 1933, and in 1939 he had a hit when he co-wrote the screenplay for the romantic comedy Ninotchka, starring Greta Garbo. Wilder established his directorial reputation with an adaption of James M. Cain's Double Indemnity (1944), a film noir
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Melodrama
A melodrama is a dramatic work in which the plot, which is typically sensational and designed to appeal strongly to the emotions, takes precedence over detailed characterization. Characters are often simply drawn, and may appear stereotyped. In scholarly and historical musical contexts, melodramas are Victorian dramas in which orchestral music or song was used to accompany the action. The term is now also applied to stage performances without incidental music, novels, movies, and television and radio broadcasts. In modern contexts, the term "melodrama" is generally pejorative,[1] as it suggests that the work in question lacks subtlety, character development, or both
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Rise Of Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler's rise to power
Adolf Hitler's rise to power
began in Germany in September 1919[a] when Hitler
Hitler
joined the political party known as the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei – DAP (German Workers' Party). The name was changed in 1920 to the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei – NSDAP
NSDAP
(National Socialist German Workers' Party, commonly known as the Nazi Party). This political party was formed and developed during the post- World War I
World War I
era
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Austrian Jews
The history of the Jews
Jews
in Austria probably begins with the exodus of Jews
Jews
from Judea under Roman occupation. Over the course of many centuries, the political status of the community rose and fell many times: during certain periods, the Jewish community prospered and enjoyed political equality, and during other periods it suffered pogroms, deportations to concentration camps and mass murder, and antisemitism
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University Of Vienna
The University of Vienna
Vienna
(German: Universität Wien) is a public university located in Vienna, Austria. It was founded by Duke Rudolph IV in 1365 and is one of the oldest universities in the German-speaking world. With its long and rich history, the University of Vienna
Vienna
has developed into one of the largest universities in Europe, and also one of the most renowned, especially in the Humanities
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Taxi Dancer
A taxi dancer is a paid dance partner in a partner dance. Taxi dancers are hired to dance with their customers on a dance-by-dance basis. When taxi dancing first appeared in taxi-dance halls during early 20th-century America, male patrons would typically buy dance tickets for a small sum each.[1][2][3] When a patron presented a ticket to a chosen taxi dancer, she would dance with him for the length of a single song. The taxi dancers would earn a commission on every dance ticket earned. Though taxi dancing has for the most part disappeared in the United States, it is still practiced in some other countries.Contents1 Etymology 2 History 3 Taxi dancers today3.1 In the United States 3.2 In Argentina4 See also 5 References 6 SourcesEtymology[edit] The term "taxi dancer" comes from the fact that, as with a taxi-cab driver, the dancer's pay is proportional to the time he or she spends dancing with the customer
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Stringer (journalism)
In journalism, a stringer is a freelance journalist, photographer, or videographer who contributes reports, photos, or videos to a news organization on an ongoing basis but is paid individually for each piece of published or broadcast work.[2] As freelancers, stringers do not receive a regular salary and the amount and type of work is typically voluntary. However, stringers often have an ongoing relationship with one or more news organizations, to which they provide content on particular topics or locations when the opportunities arise.[3] The term is typically confined to news industry jargon
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Tabloid (newspaper Format)
A tabloid is a newspaper with a compact page size smaller than broadsheet. A tabloid is defined as "roughly 17 by 11 inches (432 by 279 mm)" and commonly "half the size of a broadsheet", although there is no standard size for this newspaper format. The term tabloid journalism refers to an emphasis on such topics as sensational crime stories, astrology, celebrity gossip and television, and is not a reference to newspapers printed in this format. Some small-format papers with a high standard of journalism refer to themselves as compact newspapers. Larger newspapers, traditionally associated with higher-quality journalism, are called broadsheets, even if the newspaper is now printed on smaller pages
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Erich Kästner
Emil Erich Kästner
Erich Kästner
(German: [ˈʔeːʁɪç ˈkɛstnɐ]; 23 February 1899 – 29 July 1974) was a German author, poet, screenwriter and satirist, known primarily for his humorous, socially astute poems and for children's books including Emil and the Detectives
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Holocaust
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah,[b] was a genocide during World War II
World War II
in which Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered some six million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.[c] Jews
Jews
were targeted for extermination as part of a larger event involving the persecution and murder of other groups, including in particular the Roma, ethnic Poles, and "incurably sick",[6] as well as political opponents, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Soviet prisoners of war.[7] Germany implemented the persecution in stages. Following Hitler's rise to power in 1933, the government passed laws to exclude Jews
Jews
from civil society, most prominently the Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
in 1935
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Academy Awards
MoonlightBest Picture The Shape of WaterThe Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars,[1] are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership. The various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette, officially called the "Academy Award of Merit", which has become commonly known by its nickname "Oscar". The sculpture was created by George Stanley.[2] The awards, first presented in 1929 at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel, are overseen by AMPAS.[3][4] The awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now seen live in more than 200 countries and can be streamed live online.[5] The Academy Awards ceremony is the oldest worldwide entertainment awards ceremony
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Plaszow Concentration Camp
The Płaszów (Polish pronunciation: [ˈpwaʂuf]) or Kraków-Płaszów concentration camp (German: Konzentrationslager Plaszow) was a Nazi German labour and concentration camp built by the SS in Płaszów, a southern suburb of Kraków (now part of Podgórze district), soon after the German invasion of Poland and the subsequent creation of the semi-colonial General Government district across occupied south-central Poland.[1][2]Contents1 History 2 Camp operation2.1 Prisoner victims3 Commemoration 4 See also 5 Notes 6 Further readingHistory[edit]Major Nazi German concentration camps in occupied Poland (marked with squares)Originally intended as a forced labour camp, the Płaszów concentration camp was constructed on the grounds of two former Jewish cemeteries (including the New Jewish Cemetery)
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Belzec Concentration Camp
Bełżec[2] (pronounced [ˈbɛu̯ʐɛt͡s], in German: Belzec) was a Nazi German extermination camp built by the SS for the purpose of implementing the secretive Operation Reinhard, the plan to eradicate Polish Jewry, a key part of the "Final Solution" which entailed the murder of some 6 million Jews in the Holocaust.[3] The camp operated from 000000001942-03-17-000017 March 1942 to the end of 000000001942-12-01-0000December 1942.[4] It was situated about 0.5 km (0.31 mi) south of the local railroad station of Bełżec, in the new Distrikt Lublin of the semi-colonial General Government territory of German-occupied Poland.[5] The burning of exhumed corpses on five open-air grids and bone crushing continued until March 1943.[6] Between 430,000 and 500,000 Jews are believed to have been murdered by the SS at Bełżec.[4][7] This makes it the third deadliest extermination camp, exceeded only by Treblinka and Auschwitz
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Nowy Targ
Nowy Targ [ˈnɔvɨ ˈtark] (Latin: Novum Forum, Slovak: Nový Targ, German: Neumarkt, Yiddish: ניימארקט‎ Naymarkt) is a town in southern Poland with 34,000 inhabitants (2006). It is the historical capital of the Podhale region. The town is situated in a valley beneath the Gorce Mountains featuring Gorce National Park established in 1981, at the confluence of rivers Biały and Czarny Dunajec. Administratively, it is in Nowy Targ County in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship. It was previously in Nowy Sącz Voivodeship (1975–1998).Contents1 Timeline of town history 2 Geography2.1 Climate3 Culture3.1 Museums 3.2 Cinemas4 Architecture4.1 St. Anna Church 4.2 St
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Naturalized
Naturalization
Naturalization
(or naturalisation) is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country. It may be done by a statute, without any effort on the part of the individual, or it may involve an application and approval by legal authorities. The rules of naturalization vary from country to country and typically include a minimum legal residency requirement, and may specify other requirements such as knowledge of the national dominant language or culture, a promise to obey and uphold that country's laws. An oath or pledge of allegiance is also sometimes required
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Romantic Comedy
Romantic comedy
Romantic comedy
(also known as the portmanteaus romedy or romcom) is a genre with light-hearted, humorous plotlines, centered on romantic ideals such as that true love is able to surmount most obstacles.[1] One dictionary definition is "a funny movie, play, or television program about a love story that ends happily".[2] Another definition states that its "primary distinguishing feature is a love plot in which two sympathetic and well-matched lovers are united or reconciled".[3]
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