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Billie Holiday
Eleanora Fagan (April 7, 1915 – July 17, 1959), better known as Billie Holiday, was an American jazz musician and singer-songwriter with a career spanning nearly thirty years. Nicknamed "Lady Day" by her friend and music partner Lester Young, Holiday had a seminal influence on jazz music and pop singing. Her vocal style, strongly inspired by jazz instrumentalists, pioneered a new way of manipulating phrasing and tempo. She was known for her vocal delivery and improvisational skills, which made up for her limited range and lack of formal music education.[2] After a turbulent childhood, Holiday began singing in nightclubs in Harlem, where she was heard by the producer John Hammond, who commended her voice. She signed a recording contract with Brunswick Records in 1935
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Phrase (music)
In music theory, a phrase (Greek: φράση) is a unit of musical meter that has a complete musical sense of its own,[5] built from figures, motifs, and cells, and combining to form melodies, periods and larger sections.[6] Terms such as sentence and verse have been adopted into the vocabulary of music from linguistic syntax.[7] Though the analogy between the musical and the linguistic phrase is often made, still the term "is one of the most ambiguous in music....there is no consistency in applying these terms nor can there be...only with melodies of a very simple type, especially those of some dances, can the terms be used with some consistency."[8] John D. White defines a phrase as, "the smallest musical unit that conveys a more or less complete musical thought
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Grammy Hall Of Fame
The Grammy Hall of Fame is a hall of fame to honor musical recordings of lasting qualitative or historical significance. Inductees are selected annually by a special member committee of eminent and knowledgeable professionals from all branches of the recording arts. It is compiled by The Recording Academy
The Recording Academy
in the United States, and was established in 1973. Recordings (singles and albums) in all genres are eligible for selection, and must be at least 25 years old to be considered
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MGM Records
A recording, record or records may mean:Contents1 An item or collection of data 2 Entertainment 3 Sports 4 Periodicals 5 Other uses 6 See alsoAn item or collection of data[edit]Sound recording and reproductionAnalogue recording Digital recording Phonograph record, a mechanical analog audio storage mediumVideo recording, of both images and sounds Image recordingPhotography Moving pictures Record (computer science), a data structureStorage record, a basic input/output structure Record (database), a set of fields in a database related to one entity Boot record, record used to start an operating systemDocument, for administrative useBusiness record, of
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Columbia Records
Columbia Records
Columbia Records
is an American major record label owned by Sony
Sony
Music Entertainment through Sony
Sony
Entertainment, both are subsidiaries of Sony Corporation
Sony Corporation
of America, the United States division of Sony Corporation. It was founded in 1887 from an earlier enterprise named the American Graphophone
Graphophone
Company, the successor to the Volta Graphophone
Graphophone
Company.[1] From 1961 to 1990, Columbia's recordings were released outside the U.S. and Canada under the name CBS
CBS
Records to avoid being confused with the Columbia Graphophone Company
Columbia Graphophone Company
in the UK
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Grammy Award
"Hello"Record of the Year "24K Magic"A Grammy Award
Grammy Award
(stylized as GRAMMY, originally called Gramophone Award), or Grammy, is an award presented by The Recording Academy
The Recording Academy
to recognize achievement in the mainly English-language music industry. The annual presentation ceremony features performances by prominent artists, and the presentation of those awards that have a more popular interest
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Cirrhosis
Cirrhosis
Cirrhosis
is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.[1] This damage is characterized by the replacement of normal liver tissue by scar tissue.[1] Typically, the disease develops slowly over months or years.[1] Early on, there are often no symptoms.[1] As the disease worsens, a person may become tired, weak, itchy, have swelling in the lower legs, develop yellow skin, bruise easily, have fluid build up in the abdomen, or develop spider-like blood vessels on the skin.[1] The fluid build-up in the abdomen may become spontaneously infected.[1] Other complications include hepatic encephalopathy,
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Tempo
In musical terminology, tempo [ˈtɛmpo] ("time" in Italian; plural: tempi [ˈtɛmpi]) is the speed or pace of a given piece. In classical music, tempo is usually indicated with an instruction at the start of a piece (often using conventional Italian terms). Tempo is usually measured in beats per minute (BPM). In modern classical compositions a "metronome mark" in beats per minute may supplement or replace the normal tempo marking, while in modern genres like electronic dance music, tempo will typically simply be stated in BPM. Tempo
Tempo
may be separated from articulation and metre, or these aspects may be indicated along with tempo, all contributing to the overall texture. While the ability to hold a steady tempo is a vital skill for a musical performer, tempo is changeable. Depending on the genre of a piece of music and the performers' interpretation, a piece may be played with slight tempo rubato or drastic accelerando
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Tony Scott
Anthony David Leighton "Tony" Scott (21 June 1944 – 19 August 2012) was an English film director and producer. He was known for directing action and thriller films such as Top Gun
Top Gun
(1986), Beverly Hills Cop II (1987), True Romance
True Romance
(1993), Crimson Tide (1995), Enemy of the State (1998), Spy Game
Spy Game
(2001), Déjà Vu (2006), and Unstoppable (2010). Scott was the younger brother of film director Sir Ridley Scott. They both graduated from the Royal College of Art
Royal College of Art
in London
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Bluebird Records
Bluebird Records
Bluebird Records
is a record label known for its low-cost releases, primarily of blues and jazz in the 1930s and 1940s. Founded by Big Bill Broonzy during the Great Depression, Bluebird concentrated on producing and selling music inexpensively. It created what came to be known as the "Bluebird sound", which influenced rhythm and blues and early rock and roll.Contents1 History 2 Labels and discs 3 Notable artists 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksHistory[edit] The label was begun in 1932 as a division of RCA Victor
RCA Victor
by Eli Oberstein, an executive at the company. Bluebird competed with other budget labels at the time. Records were made quickly and cheaply. The "Bluebird sound" came from the session band that was used on many recordings to save money
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OKeh Records
Okeh Records
Okeh Records
is an American record label founded by the Otto Heinemann Phonograph Corporation, a phonograph supplier established in 1916,[1] which branched out into phonograph records in 1918.[2] The name was originally spelled "OkeH", formed from the initials of Otto K. E. Heinemann, but later changed to "OKeh". Since 1926, Okeh has been a subsidiary of Columbia Records, now itself a subsidiary of Sony Music. Today, Okeh is an imprint of Sony Masterworks, a specialty label of Columbia.Contents1 History 2 Race records
Race records
and remote recording 3 Later years 4 New era 5 As a jazz label 6 Current ownership 7 Popular culture 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksHistory[edit]A lateral-cut recording by Billy Murray from 1919Okeh was founded by Otto K. E. Heinemann, a German-American manager for the U.S. branch of Odeon Records, which was owned by Carl Lindstrom
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Brunswick Records
Brunswick Records
Brunswick Records
is an American record label founded in 1916.Contents1 History1.1 From 1916 1.2 1920s 1.3 1930s 1.4 Since 1939 1.5 Rhythm and blues2 Ownership 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] From 1916[edit] Records under the Brunswick label were first produced by the Brunswick-Balke-Collender Company, a company based in Dubuque, Iowa which had been manufacturing products ranging from pianos to sporting equipment since 1845. The company first began producing phonographs in 1916, then began marketing their own line of records as an after-thought
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R&B
Rhythm and blues, often abbreviated as R&B, is a genre of popular music that originated in the 1940s.[1] The term was originally used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban African Americans, at a time when "urbane, rocking, jazz based music with a heavy, insistent beat" was becoming more popular.[2] In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, the bands usually consisted of piano, one or two guitars, bass, drums, one or more saxophones, and sometimes background vocalists. R&B lyrical themes often encapsulate the African-American experience of pain and the quest for freedom and joy,[3] as well as triumphs and failures in terms of relationships, economics, aspirations, and sex. The term "rhythm and blues" has undergone a number of shifts in meaning
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Blues Music
Origins of the civil rights movement
Origins of the civil rights movement
· Civil rights movement
Civil rights movement
· Black Power movementPost–civil rights era New Great MigrationCultureStudies Art Business history Black conductors Black mecca Black sc
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Swing Music
Swing music, or simply swing, is a form of popular music developed in the United States that dominated in the 1930s and 1940s. The name swing came from the 'swing feel' where the emphasis is on the off–beat or weaker pulse in the music. Swing bands usually featured soloists who would improvise on the melody over the arrangement. The danceable swing style of big bands and bandleaders such as Benny Goodman was the dominant form of American popular music from 1935 to 1946, a period known as the swing era. The verb "to swing" is also used as a term of praise for playing that has a strong groove or drive. Notable musicians of the swing era include Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Count Basie, Benny Goodman, Artie Shaw, Glenn Miller, Woody Herman, and Cab Calloway. Swing has roots in the 1920s as larger dance music ensembles began using new styles of written arrangements incorporating rhythmic innovations pioneered by Louis Armstrong
Louis Armstrong
and Earl Hines
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Jazz Blues
The twelve-bar blues or blues changes is one of the most prominent chord progressions in popular music. The blues progression has a distinctive form in lyrics, phrase, chord structure, and duration. In its basic form, it is predominantly based on the I, IV, and V chords of a key. The blues can be played in any key. Mastery of the blues and rhythm changes are "critical elements for building a jazz repertoire".[1]Contents1 Structure1.1 Variations2 Lyrical patterns 3 Notes 4 References 5 Sources 6 Further reading 7 External linksStructure[edit]The most common or standard twelve-bar blues progressions variations, in C. (Benward & Saker, 2003, p. 186)  Play A (help·info),  B (help·info),  C (help·info),  D (help·info), and  E (help·info) as boogie woogie basslines
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