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Bilaterian
Triploblasts
Triploblasts
Lankester, 1973The Bilateria
Bilateria
/ˌbaɪləˈtɪəriə/ or bilaterians, or triploblasts, are animals with bilateral symmetry, i.e., they have a head (anterior) and a tail (posterior) as well as a back (dorsal) and a belly (ventral); therefore they also have a left side and a right side.[1] The bilateria are a major group of animals, including the majority of phyla but not sponges, cnidarians, placozoans and ctenophores. For the most part, bilateral embryos are triploblastic, having three germ layers: endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Nearly all are bilaterally symmetrical, or approximately so; the most notable exception is the echinoderms, which achieve near-radial symmetry as adults, but are bilaterally symmetrical as larvae. Except for a few phyla (i.e. flatworms and gnathostomulids), bilaterians have complete digestive tracts with a separate mouth and anus
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Ediacaran
The Ediacaran
Ediacaran
Period ( /iːdiˈækərən/), spans 94 million years from the end of the Cryogenian Period 635 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Cambrian
Cambrian
Period 541 Mya. It marks the end of the Proterozoic
Proterozoic
Eon, and the beginning of the Phanerozoic Eon
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Scalidophora
Cephalorhyncha, Priapozoa Scalidophora
Scalidophora
is a group of marine pseudocoelomate protostomes that was proposed on morphological grounds to unite three phyla: the Kinorhyncha, the Priapulida
Priapulida
and the Loricifera.[2][3] The three phyla have four characters in common — chitinous cuticle that is moulted, rings of scalids on the introvert, flosculi, and two rings of introvert retracts.[4] However, the monophyly of the Scalidophora
Scalidophora
is not supported by molecular studies, where the position of the Loricifera
Loricifera
was uncertain[2] or as sister to the Panarthropoda.[3] Both studies supported a reduced Scalidophora
Scalidophora
comprising the Kinorhyncha and Priapulida
Priapulida
as sister phyla
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Saccorhytida
Saccorhytus
Saccorhytus
(from Latin
Latin
saccus "bag" and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
ῥύτις rhytis "wrinkle") is an extinct genus of animal belonging to the superphylum Deuterostomia, which is represented by a single species, Saccorhytus
Saccorhytus
coronarius (from Latin
Latin
attributive coronarius "[of a] crown")
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Ambulacraria
Ambulacraria
Ambulacraria
or Coelomopora is a clade of invertebrate phyla which includes echinoderms and hemichordates;[1] a member of this group is called an ambulacrarian
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a digital object identifier (DOI) is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to identify their referents uniquely
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval.[1] From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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Hemichordata
Pterobranchia Enteropneusta Planctosphaera pelagica And See text.Hemichordata is a phylum of marine deuterostome animals, generally considered the sister group of the echinoderms. They appear in the Lower or Middle Cambrian
Cambrian
and include two main classes: Enteropneusta (acorn worms), and Pterobranchia. A third class, Planctosphaeroidea, is known only from the larva of a single species, Planctosphaera pelagica. The extinct class Graptolithina
Graptolithina
is closely related to the pterobranchs.[1] Acorn worms are solitary worm-shaped organisms. They generally live in burrows (the earliest secreted tubes)[2] and are deposit feeders, but some species are pharyngeal filter feeders, while the family Torquaratoridae are free living detritivores
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Echinodermata
Homalozoa
Homalozoa
† Gill & Caster, 1960 Homostelea
Homostelea
† Homoiostelea †
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Cambroernida
The cambroernids are a clade containing the eldoniids and Herpetogaster-like forms.[1] It also includes the Rotadisciidae.^ Caron, J.; Conway Morris, S.; Shu, D.; Soares, D. (2010). Soares, Daphne, ed. "Tentaculate fossils from the Cambrian
Cambrian
of Canada (British Columbia) and China (Yunnan) interpreted as primitive deuterostomes". PLoS ONE. 5 (3): e9586. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009586. PMC 2833208 . PMID 20221405. This article related to a Cambrian
Cambrian
animal is a stub
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Protostomia
Protostomia (from Greek πρωτο- proto- "first" and στόμα stoma "mouth") is a clade of animals. Together with the deuterostomes and xenacoelomorpha, its members make up the Bilateria, mostly comprising animals with bilateral symmetry and three germ layers.[1] The major distinctions between deuterostomes and protostomes are found in embryonic development: most (but, confusingly, not all)[2][3] protostomes undergo protostomy, whereas most deuterostomes undergo deuterostomy.Contents1 Protostomy 2 Evolution 3 See also 4 ReferencesProtostomy[edit]Differences between protostomes and deuterostomesFurther information: Embryological origins of the mouth and anus In animals at least as complex as earthworms, the embryo forms a dent on one side, the blastopore, which deepens to become the archenteron, the first phase in the growth of the gut
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Ecdysozoa
Ecdysozoa
Ecdysozoa
/ˌɛkdɪsoʊˈzoʊə/ is a group of protostome animals,[1] including Arthropoda
Arthropoda
(insects, chelicerata, crustaceans, and myriapods), Nematoda, and several smaller phyla. They were first defined by Aguinaldo et al. in 1997, based mainly on phylogenetic trees constructed using 18S ribosomal RNA genes.[2] A large study in 2008 by Dunn et al. strongly supported the Ecdysozoa
Ecdysozoa
as a clade, that is, a group consisting of a common ancestor and all its descendants.[3] The group is also supported by morphological characters, and includes all animals that grow by ecdysis, moulting their exoskeleton. The group was initially contested by a significant minority of biologists
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Cycloneuralia
Cycloneuralia is a clade of ecdysozoan animals including the Scalidophora
Scalidophora
(Kinorhynchans, Loriciferans, Priapulids) and the Nematoida
Nematoida
(nematodes, Nematomorphs).[1][2] It may be paraphyletic, or may be a sister group to Panarthropoda. Or perhaps Panarthropoda
Panarthropoda
is paraphyletic with respect to Cycloneuralia.[3] The group has also been considered a single phylum, sometimes given the old name Nemathelminthes.[4] The name derives from the position of the brain around the pharynx.[5] References[edit]^ "articulata". Archived from the original on 2010-05-10. Retrieved 2009-06-28.  ^ Telford MJ, Bourlat SJ, Economou A, Papillon D, Rota-Stabelli O (April 2008). "The evolution of the Ecdysozoa". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 363 (1496): 1529–37. doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2243. PMC 2614232 
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Kinorhyncha
See text. Kinorhyncha
Kinorhyncha
(Ancient Greek: κινέω, translit. kīnéō, lit. 'I move', ῥύγχος rhúnkhos "snout") is a phylum of small (1 mm or less) marine invertebrates that are widespread in mud or sand at all depths as part of the meiobenthos. They are also called mud dragons.Contents1 Anatomy1.1 Reproduction2 Classification2.1 Taxonomy3 References 4 External linksAnatomy[edit] Kinorhynchs are segmented, limbless animals, with a body consisting of a head, neck, and a trunk of eleven segments
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Deuterostomia
Deuterostomes (taxonomic term: Deuterostomia; meaning "second mouth" in Greek)[1][2] are any members of a superphylum of animals. It is a sister clade of Protostomia, with which it forms the Nephrozoa
Nephrozoa
clade. Deuterostomia
Deuterostomia
is a subtaxon of the Bilateria
Bilateria
branch of the subkingdom Eumetazoa, within Animalia, and are distinguished from protostomes by their deuterostomic embryonic development; in deuterostomes, the first opening (the blastopore) becomes the anus, while in protostomes, it becomes the mouth
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Loricifera
Loricifera
Loricifera
(from Latin, lorica, corselet (armour) + ferre, to bear) is a phylum of very small to microscopic marine cycloneuralian sediment-dwelling animals with 37 described species, in nine genera.[3][4][5] Aside from these described species, there are approximately 100 more that have been collected and not yet described.[4] Their sizes range from 100 µm to ca. 1 mm.[6] They are characterised by a protective outer case called a lorica and their habitat, which is in the spaces between marine gravel to which they attach themselves
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