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Bicalutamide
Bicalutamide, sold under the brand name Casodex among others, is an antiandrogen medication that is primarily used to treat prostate cancer.[11] It is typically used together with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue or surgical removal of the testicles to treat advanced prostate cancer.[12][11][13] Bicalutamide
Bicalutamide
may also be used to treat excessive hair growth in women,[14] as a component of feminizing hormone therapy for transgender women,[15] to treat early puberty in boys,[16] and to prevent overly long-lasting erections in men.[17] It is taken by mouth.[11] Common side effects in men include breast enlargement,
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American Society Of Health-System Pharmacists
The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists
Pharmacists
(ASHP) is a professional organization representing the interests of pharmacists who practice in hospitals, health maintenance organizations, long-term care facilities, home care, and other components of health care. Previously it was known as the American Society of Hospital Pharmacists. As of 2018[update], ASHP has 45,000 members and a staff of more than 200.Contents1 History 2 Aim 3 Publications 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] By 1939 a subsection of hospital pharmacists was formed in the American Pharmaceutical Association (APhA), and for the first time, hospital pharmacists had a voice in a national organization. In 1942, hospital pharmacists established the American Society of Hospital Pharmacists, affiliated with APhA
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Protein Data Bank
The Protein
Protein
Data Bank (PDB) is a crystallographic database for the three-dimensional structural data of large biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids. The data, typically obtained by X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, or, increasingly, cryo-electron microscopy, and submitted by biologists and biochemists from around the world, are freely accessible on the Internet via the websites of its member organisations (PDBe,[1] PDBj,[2] and RCSB[3]). The PDB is overseen by an organization called the Worldwide Protein
Protein
Data Bank, wwPDB. The PDB is a key resource in areas of structural biology, such as structural genomics. Most major scientific journals, and some funding agencies, now require scientists to submit their structure data to the PDB
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IUPAC Nomenclature Of Chemistry
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
(IUPAC) has published four sets of rules to standardize chemical nomenclature. There are two main areas: IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry
IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry
(Red Book) IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry
IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry
(Blue Book)This chemistry-related article is a stub
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CAS Registry Number
A CAS Registry Number,[1] also referred to as CASRN or CAS Number, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including all substances described from 1957 through the present, plus some substances from the early or mid 1900s), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals, isotopes, alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of unknown, variable composition, or biological origin).[2] The Registry maintained by CAS is an authoritative collection of disclosed chemical substance information. It currently identifies more than 129 million organic and inorganic substances and 67 million protein and DNA sequences,[3] plus additional information about each substance
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Guide To Pharmacology
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY is an open-access website, acting as a portal to information on the biological targets of licensed drugs and other small molecules. The Guide to PHARMACOLOGY (with GtoPdb being the standard abbreviation) is developed as a joint venture between the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR) and the British Pharmacological Society (BPS). This replaces and expands upon the original 2009 IUPHAR Database (standard abbreviation IUPHAR-DB) . The Guide to PHARMACOLOGY aims to provide a concise overview of all pharmacological targets, accessible to all members of the scientific and clinical communities and the interested public, with links to details on a selected set of targets
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DrugBank
The DrugBank database is a comprehensive, freely accessible, online database containing information on drugs and drug targets.[1] As both a bioinformatics and a cheminformatics resource, DrugBank combines detailed drug (i.e. chemical, pharmacological and pharmaceutical) data with comprehensive drug target (i.e. sequence, structure, and pathway) information.[1][2] Because of its broad scope, comprehensive referencing and unusually detailed data descriptions, DrugBank is more akin to a drug encyclopedia than a drug database. As a result, links to DrugBank are maintained for nearly all drugs listed in. DrugBank is widely used by the drug industry, medicinal chemists, pharmacists, physicians, students and the general public
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ChemSpider
ChemSpider
ChemSpider
is a database of chemicals. ChemSpider
ChemSpider
is owned by the Royal Society of Chemistry.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]Contents1 Database 2 Crowdsourcing 3 Searching 4 Chemistry document mark-up 5 History 6 Services6.1 SyntheticPages 6.2 Open PHACTS7 See also 8 ReferencesDatabase[edit] The database contains information on more than 63 million molecules from over 280 data sources including:EPA DSSTox[14][15] U.S
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Unique Ingredient Identifier
The Unique Ingredient Identifier (UNII) is a non-proprietary, free, unique, unambiguous, non-semantic, alphanumeric identifier linked to a substance's molecular structure or descriptive information by the Substance Registration System (SRS) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). The SRS is used to generate permanent, unique identifiers for substances in regulated products, such as ingredients in drug and biologic products. The SRS uses molecular structure and descriptive information to define a substance and generate the UNII. The primary means for defining a substance is by its molecular structure as represented on a two-dimensional plane
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KEGG
KEGG
KEGG
(Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) is a collection of databases dealing with genomes, biological pathways, diseases, drugs, and chemical substances
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ChEBI
Chemical Entities of Biological Interest, also known as ChEBI,[1][2] is a database and ontology of molecular entities focused on 'small' chemical compounds, that is part of the Open Biomedical Ontologies effort. The term "molecular entity" refers to any "constitutionally or isotopically distinct atom, molecule, ion, ion pair, radical, radical ion, complex, conformer, etc., identifiable as a separately distinguishable entity".[3] The molecular entities in question are either products of nature or synthetic products which have potential bioactivity
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ChEMBL
Ch EMBL
EMBL
or ChEMBLdb is a manually curated chemical database of bioactive molecules with drug-like properties.[1] It is maintained by the European Bioinformatics Institute
European Bioinformatics Institute
(EBI), of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory
Laboratory
(EMBL), based at the Wellcome Trust
Wellcome Trust
Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK. The database, originally known as StARlite, was developed by a biotechnology company called Inpharmatica Ltd. later acquired by Galapagos NV
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Ligand (biochemistry)
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose. In protein-ligand binding, the ligand is usually a molecule which produces a signal by binding to a site on a target protein. The binding typically results in a change of conformation of the target protein. In DNA-ligand binding studies, the ligand can be a small molecule, ion,[1] or protein[2] which binds to the DNA double helix. The relationship between ligand and binding partner is a function of charge, hydrophobicity, and molecular structure. The instance of binding occurs over an infinitesimal range of time and space, so the rate constant is usually a very small number. Binding occurs by intermolecular forces, such as ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals forces. The association of docking is actually reversible through dissociation. Measurably irreversible covalent bonding between a ligand and target molecule is atypical in biological systems
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Feces
Feces
Feces
(or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine. Bacteria in the large intestine further break down the material.[1][2] Feces
Feces
contain a relatively small amount of metabolic waste products such as bacterially altered bilirubin, and the dead epithelial cells from the lining of the gut.[1] Feces
Feces
are discharged through the anus or cloaca during a process called defecation. Feces
Feces
can be used as fertilizer or soil conditioner in agriculture. It can also be burned and used as a fuel source or dried and used as a construction material. Some medicinal uses have been found. In the case of human feces, fecal transplants or fecal bacteriotherapy are in use
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ECHA InfoCard
The European Chemicals Agency
European Chemicals Agency
(ECHA; /ˈɛkə/ EK-ə)[citation needed] is an agency of the European Union
European Union
which manages the technical, scientific and administrative aspects of the implementation of the European Union regulation
European Union regulation
called Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). ECHA is the driving force among regulatory authorities in implementing the EU's chemicals legislation. ECHA helps companies to comply with the legislation, advances the safe use of chemicals, provides information on chemicals and addresses chemicals of concern
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Chemical Formula
A chemical formula is a way of information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs. These are limited to a single typographic line of symbols, which may include subscripts and superscripts. A chemical formula is not a chemical name, and it contains no words. Although a chemical formula may imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula. Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances, and are generally more limited in power than are chemical names and structural formulas. The simplest types of chemical formulas are called empirical formulas, which use letters and numbers indicating the numerical proportions of atoms of each type
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