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Biathlete
The biathlon is a winter sport that combines cross-country skiing and rifle shooting. It is treated as a race where the contestant with the shortest total time wins. Depending on the competition, missed shots result in extra distance or time added to the contestant's total skiing distance or time.Contents1 History 2 Governing body 3 Championships 4 Rules and equipment4.1 Basic concepts 4.2 Skiing
Skiing
details 4.3 Shooting details5 Competition format5.1 Individual 5.2 Sprint 5.3 Pursuit 5.4 Mass start 5.5 Relay 5.6 Mixed relay 5.7 Team (obsolete)6 Broadcasting 7 Biathlon
Biathlon
records and statistics 8 See also 9 Notes 10 External linksHistory[edit] According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the biathlon "is rooted in the skiing traditions of Scandinavia, where early inhabitants revered the Norse god Ullr
Ullr
as both the ski god and the hunting god"
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Biathlon World Championships 2005
The 40th Biathlon World Championships were held in 2005 for the third time in Hochfilzen, Austria
Austria
from 4 to 13 March. Approximately 80,000 spectators went to see the competitions
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Modern Pentathlon
The modern pentathlon is an Olympic sport that comprises five different events; fencing (one-touch épée), freestyle swimming (200m), equestrian show jumping (15 jumps), and a final combined event of pistol shooting and cross country running (3200m)
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Biathle
Biathle or Modern biathlon is a sub-sport of modern pentathlon invented to create opportunities for training the run and swim parts of pentathlon in real race conditions. It is a sport in its own right. It bears close resemblance to aquathlon which also contains swimming and running but comes from triathlon sport.Contents1 Sport 2 Biathle World Championships 3 Champions3.1 Men's Championship 3.2 Women's championship4 Venue 5 External linksSport[edit] Biathle is an event that can involve a run, swim, and run course, or a swim, run course. It is a world class sport but not an Olympic one. The legs are raced with continuous transitions like triathlon. The race length is usually 200 m swim and 3 km run, which is shorter than aquathlon usually is
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Cartridge (firearms)
A cartridge is a type of firearm ammunition packaging a projectile (bullet, shots or slug), a propellant substance (usually either smokeless powder or black powder) and an ignition device (primer) in a metallic, paper or plastic cartridge that fits the barrel chamber of a breechloading gun, for the practical purpose of convenient transportation and shooting.[1] Although in popular usage the term "bullet" is often used to refer to a complete cartridge, it is correctly used only to refer to the projectile. Cartridges can be categorized by the type of their primers — a small charge of an impact- or electric-sensitive chemical mixture that is located at the center of the case head (centerfire), inside the rim of the case base (rimfire and the now obsolete cupfire), in a sideway projection that is shaped like pin (pinfire, now obsolete) or a lip (lipfire, now obsolete), or in a small nipple-like bulge at the case base (teat-fire, now obsolete). Military and commercial producers continue t
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.30-06 Springfield
The .30-06 Springfield
.30-06 Springfield
cartridge (pronounced "thirty-aught-six" or "thirty-oh-six"), 7.62×63mm in metric notation and called ".30 Gov't '06" by Winchester,[3] was introduced to the United States
United States
Army in 1906 and later standardized; it remained in use until the early 1980s. The ".30" refers to the caliber of the bullet. The "06" refers to the year the cartridge was adopted—1906. It replaced the .30-03, 6mm Lee Navy, and .30-40 Krag
.30-40 Krag
cartridges. The .30-06 remained the U.S. Army's primary rifle and machine gun cartridge for nearly 50 years before being replaced by the 7.62×51mm NATO
7.62×51mm NATO
(commercial .308 Winchester) and 5.56×45mm NATO, both of which remain in current U.S. and NATO service
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7.62×51mm NATO
The 7.62×51mm NATO
NATO
(official NATO
NATO
nomenclature 7.62 NATO) is a rimless bottlenecked rifle cartridge developed in the 1950s as a standard for small arms among NATO
NATO
countries. It should not be confused with the similarly named Russian 7.62×54mmR
7.62×54mmR
cartridge, a slightly longer rimmed cartridge. It was introduced in U.S. service in the M14 rifle
M14 rifle
and M60 machine gun in the late 1950s. The M14 was superseded in U.S. service as the infantry adopted the 5.56×45mm
5.56×45mm
NATO
NATO
M16. However, the M14 and many other firearms that use the 7.62×51 round remain in service, especially in the case of various sniper rifles, medium machine guns such as the M240, and various rifles in use by special operations forces
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.22 Long Rifle
The .22 Long Rifle
Rifle
(metric designation: 5.6×15mmR) cartridge is a long-established variety of .22 caliber rimfire ammunition, and in terms of units sold is still by far the most common ammunition in the world today. The cartridge is often referred to simply as .22 LR ("twenty-two-/ɛl/-/ɑːr/") and various rifles, pistols, revolvers, submachine guns and even some smoothbore shotguns (No. 1 bore) have been manufactured in this caliber.Contents1 History 2 Popularity in the US 3 Performance 4 Variants4.1 Subsonic 4.2 Standard velocity 4.3 High velocity 4.4 Hyper-velocity 4.5 Shot cartridges 4.6 Full metal jacket 4.7 Tracer5 Cartridge construction 6 Cartridge length 7 Usage 8 Cartridge dimensions 9 Muzzle velocity
Muzzle velocity
(nominal) 10 See also 11 References 12 External linksHistory[edit] American firearms manufacturer J
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Rimfire Ammunition
Rimfire is a method of ignition for metallic firearm cartridges as well as the cartridges themselves. It is called rimfire because the firing pin of a gun strikes and crushes the base's rim to ignite the primer. The rim of the rimfire cartridge is essentially an extended and widened percussion cap which contains the priming compound, while the cartridge case itself contains the propellant powder and the projectile (bullet). Once the rim of the cartridge has been struck and the bullet discharged, the cartridge cannot be reloaded, because the head has been deformed by the firing pin impact. While many other different cartridge priming methods have been tried since the 19th century, only rimfire technology and centerfire technology survive today in significant use. Frenchman Louis-Nicolas Flobert invented the first rimfire metallic cartridge in 1845
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1980 Winter Olympics
The 1980 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIII Olympic Winter Games (French: Les XIIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver), was a multi-sport event which was celebrated from February 13, through February 24, 1980, in Lake Placid, New York. This was the second time the Upstate New York village hosted the Games, after 1932. The only other candidate city to bid for the Games was Vancouver-Garibaldi, British Columbia, Canada, which withdrew before the final vote (though Vancouver
Vancouver
would eventually win the bid to host the 2010 Winter Olympics.) The mascot of the Games was "Roni", a raccoon. The mask-like rings on a raccoon's face recall the goggles and hats worn by many athletes in winter sports. The sports were played at the Olympic Center, Whiteface Mountain, Mt
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Lake Placid, New York
Lake Placid is a village in the Adirondack Mountains
Adirondack Mountains
in Essex County, New York, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,521.[2] The village of Lake Placid is near the center of the town of North Elba, 50 miles (80 km) southwest of Plattsburgh. Lake Placid, along with nearby Saranac Lake and Tupper Lake, comprise what is known as the Tri-Lakes region. Lake Placid hosted the 1932 and the 1980 Winter Olympics. Lake Placid also hosted the 1972 Winter Universiade and the 2000 Winter Goodwill Games.Contents1 History 2 Olympic Games 3 Recreational opportunities 4 Regular sporting events 5 Education 6 Transportation 7 Geography 8 Climate 9 Demographics 10 Notable people10.1 Winter Olympic athletes11 References 12 External linksHistory[edit] Lake Placid was founded in the early 19th century to develop an iron ore mining operation
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International Biathlon Union
The International Biathlon
Biathlon
Union (IBU; German: Internationale Biathlon-Union) is the international governing body of biathlon. Its headquarters are in Salzburg, Austria.Contents1 History 2 Administration 3 Budget 4 Events 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] The International Biathlon
Biathlon
Union (IBU) was founded in London
London
on 2 July 1993. This occurred when the National Biathlon
Biathlon
Union in London/ Heathrow
Heathrow
decided to exclude biathlon from the World federation UIPMB (Union de Pentathlon Moderne et Biathlon), which it had been part of since 1953,[1] forcing biathlon to form their own international federation. During the congress the new federation elected their executive committee and the 57 existing members of the UIPMB were automatically transferred to the IBU
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1960 Winter Olympics
The 1960 Winter Olympics, officially known as the VIII Olympic Winter Games, was a winter multi-sport event held between February 18–28, 1960 in Squaw Valley, California, United States. Squaw Valley was chosen to host the Games at the 1956 meeting of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). It was an undeveloped resort in 1955, so from 1956 to 1960 the infrastructure and all of the venues were built at a cost of US$80,000,000. It was designed to be intimate, allowing spectators and competitors to walk to nearly all the venues. Squaw Valley hosted athletes from thirty nations who competed in four sports and twenty-seven events. Women's speed skating and biathlon made their Olympic debuts
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Gustaf Dyrssen
Gustaf Peder Wilhelm Dyrssen
Wilhelm Dyrssen
(24 November 1891 – 13 May 1981) was a Swedish Army
Swedish Army
officer and Olympic modern pentathlete.Contents1 Military career 2 Athletic career 3 Other work 4 Personal life 5 Awards and decorations 6 ReferencesMilitary career[edit] Dyrssen was born in Stockholm, Sweden, the son of admiral Wilhelm Dyrssen and baroness Lizinka af Uggla and brother of Magnus Dyrssen. He was commissioned into the Svea Artillery Regiment
Svea Artillery Regiment
(A 1) as a second lieutenant in 1912 and attended at the Artillery and Engineering College from 1914 to 1915. Dyrssen became a lieutenant in 1915 and attended at the Royal Swedish Army
Swedish Army
Staff College from 1917 to 1919. He was a cadet in the General Staff from 1920 to 1922, became captain in 1924 and served at the State Railways from 1924 to 1926
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Sven Thofelt
Sven Alfred Thofelt (19 May 1904 – 1 February 1993) was a Swedish modern pentathlete and épée fencer who competed at the 1928, 1932, 1936 and 1948 Summer Olympics. In the modern pentathlon he won the gold medal in 1928 and finished fourth in 1932 and 1936, competing in 1932 with broken ribs and injured arm due to a bad fall from the horse.[1] In fencing, he won two team medals in 1936 and 1948, finishing ninth individually in 1932.[2] He also won four bronze and two silver medals in the team épée at the world championships of 1931–1947.[1] Nationally Thofelt won six titles in the modern pentathlon, three in the individual épée, and one in the 4 × 100 m freestyle swimming.[2] Thofelt was a career officer, graduating from the Royal Military Academy in 1924 and retiring in 1964 in the rank of brigadier-general. He was an adjutant of the Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf (1938–47) and King Gustav V (1948–50). In parallel he served as a sports administrator
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Igor Novikov (pentathlete)
Igor Novikov (Russian: И́горь Алекса́ндрович Но́виков, 19 October 1929 – 30 August 2007) was a Soviet modern pentathlete and Olympic Champion. He competed at the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne, where he won a gold medal in the team competition (together with Aleksandr Tarasov and Ivan Deryugin. He won a silver medal at the 1960 Summer Olympics
1960 Summer Olympics
in Rome, and he competed at the 1964 Summer Olympics
1964 Summer Olympics
in Tokyo, where he won a gold medal in the team competition (together with Albert Mokeyev and Viktor Mineyev), and a silver medal in the individual competition.[1][2] After retiring from competitions, Novikov worked as a modern pentathlon coach and administrator
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