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Bhaskara II Bhāskara[1] (also known as Bhāskarāchārya ("Bhāskara, the teacher"), and as Bhāskara II to avoid confusion with Bhāskara I) (1114–1185), was an Indian mathematician and astronomer. He was born in Bijapur in Karnataka.[2] Bhāskara and his works represent a significant contribution to mathematical and astronomical knowledge in the 12th century. He has been called the greatest mathematician of medieval India.[3] His main work Siddhānta Shiromani, ( Sanskrit Sanskrit for "Crown of Treatises")[4] is divided into four parts called Lilāvatī, Bījagaṇita, Grahagaṇita and Golādhyāya,[5] which are also sometimes considered four independent works.[6] These four sections deal with arithmetic, algebra, mathematics of the planets, and spheres respectively [...More...]  "Bhaskara II" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Bhāskara I Bhāskara (c. 600 – c. 680) (commonly called Bhaskara I to avoid confusion with the 12th century mathematician Bhāskara II) was a 7thcentury mathematician, who was the first to write numbers in the Hindu decimal system with a circle for the zero, and who gave a unique and remarkable rational approximation of the sine function in his commentary on Aryabhata's work.[1] This commentary, Āryabhaṭīyabhāṣya, written in 629 CE, is among the oldest known prose works in Sanskrit Sanskrit on mathematics and astronomy [...More...]  "Bhāskara I" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Leonhard Euler Leonhard Euler Leonhard Euler (/ˈɔɪlər/ OYlər;[2] Swiss Standard German: [ˈɔɪlər] ( listen); German Standard German: [ˈɔʏlɐ] ( listen); 15 April 1707 – 18 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, logician and engineer, who made important and influential discoveries in many branches of mathematics, such as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory, while also making pioneering contributions to several branches such as topology and analytic number theory. He also introduced much of the modern mathematical terminology and notation, particularly for mathematical analysis, such as the notion of a mathematical function.[3] He is also known for his work in mechanics, fluid dynamics, optics, astronomy, and music theory.[4] Euler was one of the most eminent mathematicians of the 18th century and is held to be one of the greatest in history [...More...]  "Leonhard Euler" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Pythagorean Theorem In mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem, also known as Pythagoras' theorem, is a fundamental relation in Euclidean geometry Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle. It states that the square of the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle) is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. The theorem can be written as an equation relating the lengths of the sides a, b and c, often called the "Pythagorean equation":[1] a 2 + b 2 = c 2 , displaystyle a^ 2 +b^ 2 =c^ 2 , where c represents the length of the hypotenuse and a and b the lengths of the triangle's other two sides. Although it is often argued that knowledge of the theorem predates him,[2][3] the theorem is named after the ancient Greek mathematician Pythagoras Pythagoras (c [...More...]  "Pythagorean Theorem" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Area Area Area is the quantity that expresses the extent of a twodimensional figure or shape, or planar lamina, in the plane [...More...]  "Area" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Quadratic Equation In algebra, a quadratic equation (from the Latin Latin quadratus for "square") is any equation having the form a x 2 + b x + c = 0 displaystyle ax^ 2 +bx+c=0 where x represents an unknown, and a, b, and c represent known numbers such that a is not equal to 0. If a = 0, then the equation is linear, not quadratic. The numbers a, b, and c are the coefficients of the equation, and may be distinguished by calling them, respectively, the quadratic coefficient, the linear coefficient and the constant or free term.[1] Because the quadratic equation involves only one unknown, it is called "univariate" [...More...]  "Quadratic Equation" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Quartic Equation In algebra, a quartic function is a function of the form f ( x ) = a x 4 + b x 3 + c x 2 + d x + e , displaystyle f(x)=ax^ 4 +bx^ 3 +cx^ 2 +dx+e, where a is nonzero, which is defined by a polynomial of degree four, called a quartic polynomial. Sometimes the term biquadratic is used instead of quartic, but, usually, biquadratic function refers to a quadratic function of a square (or, equivalently, to the function defined by a quartic polynomial without terms of odd degree), having the form f ( x ) = a x 4 + c x 2 + e . displaystyle f(x)=ax^ 4 +cx^ 2 +e [...More...]  "Quartic Equation" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Indeterminate Equation An indeterminate equation, in mathematics, is an equation for which there is more than one solution; for example, 2x = y is a simple indeterminate equation, as are ax + by = c and x2 = 1. Indeterminate equations cannot be solved uniquely [...More...]  "Indeterminate Equation" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Renaissance The Renaissance Renaissance (UK: /rɪˈneɪsəns/, US: /rɛnəˈsɑːns/)[1] is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries. It is an extension of the Middle Ages, and is bridged by the Age of Enlightenment Age of Enlightenment to modern history. It grew in fragments, with the very first traces found seemingly in Italy, coming to cover much of Europe, for some scholars marking the beginning of the modern age. The intellectual basis of the Renaissance Renaissance was its own invented version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science and literature [...More...]  "Renaissance" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Diophantine Equation In mathematics, a Diophantine equation Diophantine equation is a polynomial equation, usually in two or more unknowns, such that only the integer solutions are sought or studied (an integer solution is a solution such that all the unknowns take integer values). A linear Diophantine equation equates the sum of two or more monomials, each of degree 1 in one of the variables, to a constant. An exponential Diophantine equation Diophantine equation is one in which exponents on terms can be unknowns. Diophantine problems have fewer equations than unknown variables and involve finding integers that work correctly for all equations [...More...]  "Diophantine Equation" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

France France France (French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France France in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France France extends from the Mediterranean Sea Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans [...More...]  "France" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Pierre De Fermat Pierre de Fermat Pierre de Fermat (French: [pjɛːʁ də fɛʁma]; (Between 31 October and 6 December 1607[1] – 12 January 1665) was a French lawyer[3] at the Parlement Parlement of Toulouse, France, and a mathematician who is given credit for early developments that led to infinitesimal calculus, including his technique of adequality. In particular, he is recognized for his discovery of an original method of finding the greatest and the smallest ordinates of curved lines, which is analogous to that of differential calculus, then unknown, and his research into number theory. He made notable contributions to analytic geometry, probability, and optics [...More...]  "Pierre De Fermat" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Negative Number In mathematics, a negative number is a real number that is less than zero. Negative numbers represent opposites. If positive represents a movement to the right, negative represents a movement to the left. If positive represents above sea level, then negative represents below sea level. If positive represents a deposit, negative represents a withdrawal. They are often used to represent the magnitude of a loss or deficiency. A debt that is owed may be thought of as a negative asset, a decrease in some quantity may be thought of as a negative increase. If a quantity may have either of two opposite senses, then one may choose to distinguish between those senses—perhaps arbitrarily—as positive and negative. In the medical context of fighting a tumor, an expansion could be thought of as a negative shrinkage. Negative numbers are used to describe values on a scale that goes below zero, such as the Celsius and Fahrenheit Fahrenheit scales for temperature [...More...]  "Negative Number" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

India India, officially the Republic Republic of India India (IAST: Bhārat Gaṇarājya),[e] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventhlargest country by area, the secondmost populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan Pakistan to the west;[f] China, Nepal, and Bhutan Bhutan to the northeast; and Myanmar Myanmar and Bangladesh Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka and the Maldives [...More...]  "India" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Mathematical Analysis Mathematical analysis Mathematical analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with limits and related theories, such as differentiation, integration, measure, infinite series, and analytic functions.[1][2] These theories are usually studied in the context of real and complex numbers and functions. Analysis evolved from calculus, which involves the elementary concepts and techniques of analysis [...More...]  "Mathematical Analysis" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 

Infinitesimal In mathematics, infinitesimals are things so small that there is no way to measure them. The insight with exploiting infinitesimals was that entities could still retain certain specific properties, such as angle or slope, even though these entities were quantitatively small.[1] The word infinitesimal comes from a 17thcentury Modern Latin coinage infinitesimus, which originally referred to the "infiniteth" item in a sequence. Infinitesimals are a basic ingredient in the procedures of infinitesimal calculus as developed by Leibniz, including the law of continuity and the transcendental law of homogeneity. In common speech, an infinitesimal object is an object that is smaller than any feasible measurement, but not zero in size—or, so small that it cannot be distinguished from zero by any available means. Hence, when used as an adjective, "infinitesimal" means "extremely small" [...More...]  "Infinitesimal" on: Wikipedia Yahoo Parouse 