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Berman Jewish DataBank
The BERMAN JEWISH DATABANK, founded as the NORTH AMERICAN JEWISH DATA BANK, is the central online source for social scientific studies of North American Jewry and world Jewish populations and communities. The DataBank’s primary functions are to acquire and archive materials from quantitative studies of North American Jews, including data sets and reports, and to encourage and aid the production and utilization of quantitative research on North American Jews. The DataBank maintains partnerships with the Berman Jewish Policy Archive and the University of Connecticut
University of Connecticut
’s Center for Judaic Studies and Contemporary Jewish Life. The DataBank holds more than 375 surveys and studies of North American Jews, including more than 200 local community studies usually commissioned by local Jewish federations
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Gemara
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah
Mishnah
* Tosefta
Tosefta
—— Amoraic (Gemara) —— *
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Mishnah
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah * Tosefta
Tosefta
—— Amoraic ( Gemara
Gemara
) —— *
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Rabbinic Literature
RABBINIC LITERATURE, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history. However, the term often refers specifically to literature from the Talmudic era, as opposed to medieval and modern rabbinic writing, and thus corresponds with the Hebrew term SIFRUT HAZAL (Hebrew : ספרות חז"ל‎‎ "Literature sages," where Hazal normally refers only to the sages of the Talmudic era). This more specific sense of "Rabbinic literature"—referring to the Talmudim , Midrash
Midrash
(Hebrew : מדרש‎‎), and related writings, but hardly ever to later texts—is how the term is generally intended when used in contemporary academic writing. On the other hand, the terms meforshim and parshanim (commentaries/commentators) almost always refer to later, post-Talmudic writers of Rabbinic glosses on Biblical and Talmudic texts. This article discusses rabbinic literature in both senses
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Midrash
In Judaism
Judaism
, the MIDRASH (/ˈmɪdrɑːʃ/ ; Hebrew : מִדְרָשׁ‎; pl. מִדְרָשִׁים midrashim) is the genre of rabbinic literature which contains early interpretations and commentaries on the Written Torah and Oral Torah (spoken law and sermons), as well as non-legalistic rabbinic literature (aggadah ) and occasionally the Jewish religious laws (halakha ), which usually form a running commentary on specific passages in the Hebrew Scripture ( Tanakh ). The Midrash, capitalized, refers to a specific compilation of these writings, primarily from the first ten centuries CE . The purpose of midrash was to resolve problems in the interpretation of difficult passages of the text of the Hebrew Bible, using Rabbinic principles of hermeneutics and philology to align them with the religious and ethical values of religious teachers
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Tosefta
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah
Mishnah
* Tosefta—— Amoraic ( Gemara
Gemara
) —— *
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Talmud
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah
Mishnah
* Tosefta
Tosefta
—— Amoraic ( Gemara
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Ketuvim
KETUVIM (/kətuːˈviːm, kəˈtuːvɪm/ ; Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
: כְּתוּבִים‎‎ Kəṯûḇîm, "writings") is the third and final section of the Tanakh ( Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
), after Torah (instruction) and Nevi\'im (prophets). In English translations of the Hebrew Bible, this section is usually entitled "Writings". Another name used for this section is Hagiographa . The Ketuvim
Ketuvim
are believed to have been written under divine inspiration , but with one level less authority than that of prophecy . Found among the Writings within the Hebrew scriptures, I and II Chronicles form one book, along with Ezra and Nehemiah
Nehemiah
which form a single unit entitled " Ezra–Nehemiah
Ezra–Nehemiah
"
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Rabbi
In Judaism
Judaism
, a RABBI /ˈræbaɪ/ is a teacher of Torah
Torah
. This title derives from the Hebrew word רַבִּי‎ rabi , meaning "My Master" (irregular plural רבנים‎ rabanim ), which is the way a student would address a master of Torah. The word "master" רב‎ rav literally means "great one". The basic form of the rabbi developed in the Pharisaic and Talmudic era, when learned teachers assembled to codify Judaism's written and oral laws. The first sage for whom the Mishnah
Mishnah
uses the title of rabbi was Yohanan ben Zakkai , active in the early to mid first century CE
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Tanakh
Outline of Bible-related topics Bible
Bible
book Bible
Bible
portal * v * t * e The TANAKH (/tɑːˈnɑːx/ ; Hebrew : תַּנַ"ךְ‎, pronounced or ; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible
Bible
, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament
Old Testament
. These texts are composed mainly in Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
, with some passages in Biblical Aramaic (in the books of Daniel , Ezra and a few others). The traditional Hebrew text is known as the Masoretic Text . The Tanakh consists of twenty-four books
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Torah
Outline of Bible-related topics Bible
Bible
book Bible
Bible
portal * v * t * e The TORAH (/ˈtɔːrəˌˈtoʊrə/ ; Hebrew
Hebrew
: תּוֹרָה‎, "instruction, teaching") is the central reference of Judaism
Judaism
. It has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the first five books (Pentateuch) of the twenty-four books of the Tanakh
Tanakh
, and it usually includes the rabbinic commentaries (perushim ). The term "Torah" means instruction and offers a way of life for those who follow it; it can mean the continued narrative from Book
Book
of Genesis to the end of the Tanakh, and it can even mean the totality of Jewish teaching, culture and practice
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Nevi'im
Outline of Bible-related topics Bible
Bible
book Bible
Bible
portal * v * t * e NEVI\'IM (/nəviˈiːm, nəˈviːɪm/ ; Hebrew : נְבִיאִים‎ Nəḇî'îm, lit. "spokespersons", "Prophets") is the second main division of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
(the Tanakh
Tanakh
), between the Torah
Torah
(instruction) and Ketuvim
Ketuvim
(writings). The Nevi'im
Nevi'im
are divided into two groups. The Former Prophets (Hebrew : נביאים ראשונים‎ Nevi'im
Nevi'im
Rishonim) consists of the narrative books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel
Samuel
and Kings; while the Latter Prophets (Hebrew : נביאים אחרונים‎ Nevi'im
Nevi'im
Aharonim) include the books of Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and The Twelve minor prophets
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Targum
The TARGUMIM (singular: "targum", Hebrew : תרגום‎) were spoken paraphrases, explanations and expansions of the Jewish scriptures (also called the Tanakh) that a Rabbi
Rabbi
would give in the common language of the listeners, which was then often Aramaic
Aramaic
. That had become necessary near the end of the 1st century BCE, as the common language was in transition and Hebrew was used for little more than schooling and worship. The noun "Targum" is derived from the early semitic quadriliteral root 'trgm', and the Akkadian term 'targummanu' refers to "translator, interpreter". It occurs in the Hebrew Bible
Bible
in Ezra 4:7 "..
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Beit Yosef (book)
BEIT YOSEF (Hebrew : בית יוסף‎‎) — also transliterated BETH YOSEF — is a book by Rabbi Joseph Caro . It is a long, detailed commentary on the Arba\'ah Turim . It served as a precursor to the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
, which Rabbi Caro wrote later in his life. For more information on this book, see the section Beth Yosef (in the article Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
). This article about a Judaism
Judaism
-related book or text is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Italian Jews
ITALIAN JEWS (Italian : Ebrei italiani, Hebrew : יהודים איטלקים‎‎ Yehudim Italkim) can be used in a broad sense to mean all Jews
Jews
living or with roots in Italy
Italy
or in a narrower sense to mean the Italkim, an ancient community who use the Italian rite, as distinct from the communities dating from medieval or modern times who use the Sephardi or Ashkenazi rite. CONTENTS * 1 Divisions * 2 History * 3 Italian rite Jews
Jews
* 3.1 Graeco-Italian Jews
Jews
* 4 Ashkenazi Jews
Jews
* 5 Sephardi Jews
Jews
* 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 8.1 Italian rite prayer books * 9 Discography * 10 External links DIVISIONSItalian Jews
Jews
historically fell into four categories
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Sephardi Jews
SEPHARDI JEWS, also known as SEPHARDIC JEWS or simply SEPHARDIM, ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: סְפָרַדִּים‎, Modern Hebrew: Sfaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also יְהוּדֵי סְפָרַד‎ Y'hudey Spharad, lit. "The Jews
Jews
of Spain"), are a Jewish ethnic division whose ethnogenesis and emergence as a distinct community of Jews
Jews
coalesced on the Iberian Peninsula around the year 1000
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