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Berlin Blockade
The Berlin
Berlin
Blockade (24 June 1948–12 May 1949) was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War. During the multinational occupation of post–World War II Germany, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
blocked the Western Allies' railway, road, and canal access to the sectors of Berlin
Berlin
under Western control
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Douglas C-54 Skymaster
The Douglas C-54 Skymaster
Douglas C-54 Skymaster
was a four-engined transport aircraft used by the United States Army Air Forces
United States Army Air Forces
in World War II
World War II
and the Korean War. Like the Douglas C-47 Skytrain, the C-54 Skymaster was derived from a civilian airliner, the Douglas DC-4. Besides transport of cargo, the C-54 also carried presidents, prime ministers, and military staff. Dozens of variants of the C-54 were employed in a wide variety of non-combat roles such as air-sea rescue, scientific and military research, and missile tracking and recovery. During the Berlin Airlift it hauled coal and food supplies to West Berlin. After the Korean War it continued to be used for military and civilian uses by more than 30 countries
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Communist Party Of Germany
Former partiesCambodiaKPK KPRPIndonesia Korea Malaya and SingaporeMarxist–Leninist Revolutionary FactionPhilippines Saudi Arabia Sarawak Taiwan ThailandEuropeAlbania Armenia AustriaKPÖ PdA KIAzerbaijan Belarus BelgiumPvdA/PTB KP PCBosnia and Herzegovina BulgariaKPB SKBCroatia Cyprus Czech Republic DenmarkDKP KPiD APKEstonia Finland FrancePCF PCOF PRCFGeorgia GermanyKPD DKP MLPDGreeceΚΚΕ ΚΟΕ ΑΚΟΑ AnasintaxiHungary IrelandCPI WPIItalyPC PRC PMLI CPLatvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Netherlands NorwayNKP MLGRPoland Portugal Romania RussiaKR CPRF CPSJ PDP RCWP-CPSU RMP RULFSan Marino Serbia Slovakia SpainPCE PCC PCPE PCE (M-L)SwedenKP SKPSwitzerland TurkeyDHKP/C EMEP HTKP KDH/L KKP TKP MKP MLKP TDKP TKEP TKEP/L TKIP TKP/MLUkraine
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Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast (Russian: Калинингра́дская о́бласть, Kaliningradskaya oblast) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
that is located on the coast of the Baltic Sea. As an oblast, its constitutional status is equal to each of the other 84 federal subjects. Its administrative center is the city of Kaliningrad, formerly known as Königsberg. It is the only Baltic port in the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
that remains ice-free in winter. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 941,873.[10] The oblast is an exclave, bordered by Poland
Poland
to the south and Lithuania
Lithuania
to the east and north, so visa-free travel to the main part of Russia
Russia
is possible only by sea or air. The territory was formerly part of East Prussia
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Königsberg
Königsberg
Königsberg
(/ˈkɜːrnɪɡzˌbɜːrɡ/; German pronunciation: [ˈkøːnɪçsˌbɛɐ̯k]) is the name for a former German city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia. Originally a Sambian
Sambian
or Old Prussian
Old Prussian
city, it later belonged to the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights, the Duchy of Prussia, the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and Germany
Germany
until 1946. After being largely destroyed in World War II
World War II
by Allied bombing and Soviet forces and annexed by the Soviet Union thereafter, the city was renamed Kaliningrad. Few traces of the former Königsberg
Königsberg
remain today. The literal meaning of Königsberg
Königsberg
is 'King’s Mountain'
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East Prussia
East Prussia
Prussia
(German: Ostpreußen, pronounced [ˈɔstˌpʁɔʏsn̩] (listen); Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Lithuanian: Rytų Prūsija; Latin: Borussia orientalis; Russian: Восточная Пруссия, romanized: Vostóčnaja Prússija) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia
Prussia
from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire
German Empire
from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945. Its capital city was Königsberg
Königsberg
(present-day Kaliningrad). East Prussia
Prussia
was the main part of the region of Prussia
Prussia
along the southeastern Baltic Coast.[1] The bulk of the ancestral lands of the Baltic Old Prussians
Old Prussians
were enclosed within East Prussia
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Oder-Neisse Line
The Oder– Neisse
Neisse
line (Polish: granica na Odrze i Nysie Łużyckiej, German: Oder-Neiße-Grenze) is the international border between Germany and Poland. It was drawn at the Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
in the aftermath of the Second World War
Second World War
and is primarily delineated along the Oder
Oder
and Lusatian Neisse
Neisse
rivers in Central Europe, meeting the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
to the north, just west of the Polish seaports of Szczecin and Świnoujście
Świnoujście
(German: Stettin and Swinemünde). All prewar German territory east of the line and within the 1937 German boundaries (23.8% of the former Weimar Republic) were placed under International Law Administrative status, with most of it being made part of newly-Communist Poland
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South African Air Force
The South African Air Force
South African Air Force
(SAAF, Suid-Afrikaanse Lugmag (SALM) in Afrikaans) is the air force of South Africa, with headquarters in Pretoria. The South African Air Force
South African Air Force
was established on 1 February 1920. The Air Force has seen service in World War II and the Korean War. From 1966 the SAAF was involved in providing infantry support in a low intensity war ("The Border War") in Angola, South-West Africa (Namibia) and Rhodesia. As the war progressed, the intensity of air operations increased until in the late 1980s, the SAAF were compelled to fly fighter missions against Angolan aircraft in order to maintain tactical air superiority. On conclusion of the Border War in 1990, aircraft numbers were severely reduced due to economic pressures as well as the cessation of hostilities with neighbouring states
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Royal New Zealand Air Force
Available: 2,8852,603 Full Time 282 Reserves 270 Civilian Staff 51 aircraftPart of New Zealand
New Zealand
Defence ForceHeadquarters WellingtonMotto(s) Latin: Per Ardua ad Astra "Through Adversity to the Stars"Anniversaries 1 April 1937 (founded)Engagements World War II Berlin Airlift Malayan Emergency Korean War Vietnam War Iran–Iraq War Sinai Gulf War Somalia[1] Rwanda East Timor Bougainville Campaign Solomon Islands Operation Enduring FreedomWebsite airforce.mil.nzCommandersCommander-in-Chief Dame
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Royal Australian Air Force
The Royal Australian Air Force
Royal Australian Air Force
(RAAF), formed March 1921, is the aerial warfare branch of the Australian Defence Force. It directly continues the traditions of the Australian Flying Corps
Australian Flying Corps
(AFC), formed on 22 October 1912.[2] The RAAF provides support across a spectrum of operations such as air superiority, precision strikes, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, air mobility, and humanitarian support. The RAAF has taken part in many of the 20th century's major conflicts. During the Second World War
Second World War
a number of RAAF bomber, fighter, reconnaissance and other squadrons served initially in Britain, and with the Desert Air Force
Desert Air Force
located in North Africa and the Mediterranean, while the majority were later primarily deployed in the South West Pacific Area
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Royal Canadian Air Force
Latin: Sic Itur ad Astra "Such is the Pathway to the Stars"[2] Latin: Per ardua ad astra "Through Adversity to the Stars" – (1924 to 1968)March "RCAF March Past"Anniversaries Armed Forces Day (first Sunday of June)EngagementsSecond World WarBattle of Britain Battle of the AtlanticBattle of the St
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French Air Force
World War I (French: Première Guerre mondiale) World War II (French: Seconde Guerre mondiale) Indochina War (French: Guerre d'Indochine) Algerian War (French: Guerre d'Algérie) Chadian–Libyan conflict (French: Conflit tchado-libyen) Gulf War (French: Guerre du Golfe) Kosovo War (French: Guerre du Kosovo) War on TerrorWar in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–2014) (French: Guerre d' Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–2014))Opération Harmattan (French: Opération Harmattan) Occidental-Arab Coalition (French: Coalition Arabo-Occidentale)Website www.defense.gouv.fr/airCommandersChief of Staff of the French Air Force Général d'armée aérienne André Lanata, since September 21, 2015InsigniaIdentification symbolThe French Air Force
Air Force
(Armée de l'Air Française) [aʀme də lɛʀ], literally Aerial Army) is the Air Force
Air Force
Arm of the French Armed Forces
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Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
(RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force. Formed towards the end of the First World War
First World War
on 1 April 1918,[2] it is the oldest independent air force in the world.[3] Following victory over the Central Powers
Central Powers
in 1918 the RAF emerged as, at the time, the largest air force in the world.[4] Since its formation, the RAF has taken a significant role in British military history
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History Of Europe
The history of Europe
Europe
covers the peoples inhabiting Europe
Europe
from prehistory to the present. The period known as classical antiquity began with the emergence of the city-states of ancient Greece. Later, the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
came to dominate the entire Mediterranean basin. The fall of the Roman Empire in AD 476 traditionally marks the start of the Middle Ages. Beginning in the 14th century a Renaissance
Renaissance
of knowledge challenged traditional doctrines in science and theology. Simultaneously, the Protestant Reformation
Reformation
set up Protestant churches primarily in Germany, Scandinavia and England. After 1800, the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
brought prosperity to Britain and Western Europe. The main powers set up colonies in most of the Americas and Africa, and parts of Asia
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Potsdam Agreement
The Potsdam
Potsdam
Agreement (German: Potsdamer Abkommen) was the agreement between three of the Allies of World War II, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union. It concerned the military occupation and reconstruction of Germany, its borders, and the entire European Theatre of War territory. It also addressed Germany's demilitarisation, reparations and the prosecution of war criminals. Executed as a communiqué, the agreement was not a peace treaty according to international law, although it created accomplished facts. It was superseded by the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany signed on 12 September 1990. As De Gaulle had not been invited to the Conference, the French resisted implementing the Potsdam
Potsdam
Agreements within their occupation zone. In particular, the French refused to resettle any expelled Germans from the east
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Germany
Coordinates: 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9Federal Republic
Republic
of GermanyBundesrepublik Deutschland (German)[a] Flag Coat of arms Motto: "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" (de facto)(English: "Unity and Justice and Freedom")Anthem: "Deutschlandlied"[b](English: "Song of Germany")Show globeShow map of EuropeLocation of Germany (dark green)– in Europe (green & dark grey)– in the European Union (green)Capitaland largest cityBerlin[c]52
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