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Berber Jews
Berber Jews
Berber Jews
are the Jewish communities of the Atlas mountains
Atlas mountains
in Morocco, and previously in Algeria, which historically spoke Berber languages. Between 1950 and 1970 most emigrated to France, the United States, or Israel.[1]Contents1 History1.1 Antiquity 1.2 Islamic period 1.3 After the Arab–Israeli War2 Origin 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] Antiquity[edit] Jews have settled in North Africa
North Africa
since Roman times and a Jewish community existed in the Roman province of Africa, which is modern Tunisia
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Israel
Coordinates: 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35State of Israelמְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (Hebrew) دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل (Arabic)FlagEmblemAnthem: "Hatikvah" (Hebrew for "The Hope")(pre-) 1967 border (Green Line)Capital and largest city Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(limited recognition)[fn 1] 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217Official languagesHebrew ArabicEthnic groups (2017)74.7% Jewish 20.8% Arab 4.5% other[5]Religion (2016)74.7% Jewish 17.
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Aures, Algeria
Aures (Amazigh: ⴰⵡⵔⴰⵙ / Awras) is an Amazigh language-speaking natural region located in the mountainous area of the Aurès range in eastern Algeria. The region includes the Algerian provinces of Batna, Tebessa, Khenchela, Oum El Bouaghi, Souk Ahras and Biskra.Contents1 History 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] The Aures region is characterized both by its mountain terrain and by the Chaoui
Chaoui
ethnic group that historically has inhabited the area. The rugged terrain of the Aurès made that the region became one of the less developed areas in the Maghreb
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Oases
In geography, an oasis (/oʊˈeɪsɪs/; plural: oases /oʊˈeɪsiːz/) is an isolated area in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source, such as a pond or small lake. Oases also provide habitat for animals and even humans if the area is big enough. The location of oases has been of critical importance for trade and transportation routes in desert areas; caravans must travel via oases so that supplies of water and food can be replenished. Thus, political or military control of an oasis has in many cases meant control of trade on a particular route. For example, the oases of Awjila, Ghadames, and Kufra, situated in modern-day Libya, have at various times been vital to both North-South and East-West trade in the Sahara Desert. Oases are formed from underground rivers or aquifers such as an artesian aquifer, where water can reach the surface naturally by pressure or by man-made wells
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Marcel Simon (historian)
Marcel Simon (10 April 1907 in Strasbourg – 26 October 1986) was a French specialist in the history of religions, particularly relations between Christianity and Judaism in antiquity. Simon received an honorary doctorate by the Faculty of Theology at Uppsala University in 1980.[1] His major work, Verus Israel, was published in 1948; it has been described as 'seminal'.[2] He was closely associated with Henri Marrou, appreciating his layman's approach to Vatican II. Notes[edit]^ "Honorary Doctors of the Faculty of Theology - Uppsala University, Sweden". www.uu.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 2017-02-17.  ^ Listening to Trypho: Justin Martyr's Dialogue ReconsideredExternal links[edit](in French) Marcel Simon (1907-1986)Authority controlWorldCat Identities VIAF: 110120134 LCCN: n81089061 ISNI: 0000 0001 1479 9624 GND: 119438038 SUDOC: 028669231 BNF: cb120457054 (data) BIBSYS: 90077629 BNE: XX1122711This biographical article about a French academic is a stub
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First Jewish–Roman War
Judean Free Government:Sadducees PhariseesSupported by: Adiabene
Adiabene
volunteersPeasantry faction Idumeans
Idumeans
(69-70)Radical factions:Zealots
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Ibn Khaldoun
Ibn Khaldun (/ˈɪbən kælˈduːn/; Arabic: أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي‎, Abū Zayd ‘Abd ar-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad ibn Khaldūn al-Ḥaḍramī; 27 May 1332 – 17 March 1406) was an Arab historiographer and historian.[8] He is claimed as a forerunner of the modern disciplines of historiography, sociology, economics, and demography.[n 1][9][n 2] He is best known for his book, the Muqaddimah or Prolegomena ("Introduction")
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Almohades
The Almohad
Almohad
Caliphate
Caliphate
(British English: /almə(ʊ)ˈhɑːd/, U.S. English: /ɑlməˈhɑd/; Berber languages: ⵉⵎⵡⴻⵃⵃⴷⴻⵏ (Imweḥḥden), from Arabic الموحدون (al-Muwaḥḥidūn), "the monotheists" or "the unifiers") was a Moroccan[6][7] Berber Muslim
Muslim
movement founded in the 12th century.[8] The Almohad
Almohad
movement was founded by Ibn Tumart
Ibn Tumart
among the Berber Masmuda tribes of southern Morocco. Around 1120, the Almohads first established a Berber state in Tinmel
Tinmel
in the Atlas Mountains.[8] They succeeded in overthrowing the ruling Almoravid dynasty
Almoravid dynasty
governing Morocco
Morocco
by 1147, when Abd al-Mu'min al-Gumi (r
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Meknes
Meknes
Meknes
(Arabic: مكناس‎, translit. məknas; Berber languages: ⴰⵎⴽⵏⴰⵙ, translit. amknas; French: Meknès) is one of the four Imperial cities of Morocco, located in northern central Morocco
Morocco
and the sixth largest city by population in the kingdom. Founded in the 11th century by the Almoravids
Almoravids
as a military settlement, Meknes
Meknes
became capital of Morocco
Morocco
under the reign of Sultan Moulay Ismaïl (1672–1727), son of the founder of the Alaouite dynasty
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Taza
Taza (Berber: ⵜⴰⵣⴰ, Taza, in Arabic: تازة) is a city in northern Morocco, which occupies the corridor between the Rif mountains and Middle Atlas mountains, about 120 km east of Fez and 210 km west of Oujda. It recorded a population of 148,456 in the 2014 Moroccan census[2] and is the capital of Taza Province.Contents1 Geography 2 Climate 3 Sights 4 Topology 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksGeography[edit] Taza is located in north-central Morocco, in the south of the Rif region right outside the mountain range on a narrow plain. The city is composed of two formerly separate towns built on separate terraces overlooking a mountain valley
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Figuig
Figuig
Figuig
(Berber languages: Ifyey or Figig, Arabic: فكيك‎) is a town in eastern Morocco
Morocco
near the Atlas Mountains, on the border with Algeria. The town is built around an oasis of date palms, called Tazdayt, meaning "palm tree" in the Berber language, surrounded by rugged, mountainous wilderness. Modernization has somewhat raised the standard of living, and drawn much of the town's population away, so that it is now struggling to reach stability. Its population in 2014 was 10,872, down from a peak of 14,571 in 1982.[2] The Ksour Range
Ksour Range
is a mountainous area extending between Figuig
Figuig
and El Bayadh.[3]Contents1 Population 2 Aghrem 3 Culture 4 Agriculture 5 Modernisation 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksPopulation[edit] The majority population of Figuig
Figuig
is of Berber origin
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Errachidia
Errachidia (Arabic: الرشيدية‎, ar-Rachīdīya, Berber languages: ⵉⵎⵜⵖⴻⵔⵏ Imtgheren) is a city in Morocco, located in the Errachidia Province, in the region of Drâa-Tafilalet. Both languages Berber and Arabic spoken largely in this city. Toponymy[edit] Formerly known as "Ksar Es Souk" (Berber languages: ⵉⵖⵔⴻⵎ ⵏ ⵓⵍⵣⵓⵣ, Ighrem n Ulzuz), the city was renamed Errachidia around 1975 in honor of the second son of Hassan II, Moulay Rachid. Culture[edit] The city was part of the route of the 2006 and 2007 Dakar Rally. References[edit]^ "POPULATION LÉGALE DES RÉGIONS, PROVINCES, PRÉFECTURES, MUNICIPALITÉS, ARRONDISSEMENTS ET COMMUNES DU ROYAUME D'APRÈS LES RÉSULTATS DU RGPH 2014" (in Arabic and French). High Commission for Planning, Morocco. 8 April 2015
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Atlas Mountains
The Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains
(Arabic: جبال الأطلس‎, jibāl al-ʾaṭlas; Berber languages: ⵉⴷⵓⵔⴰⵔ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵟⵍⴰⵙ, idurar n waṭlas) are a mountain range in the Maghreb. It stretches around 2,500 km (1,600 mi) through Morocco, Algeria
Algeria
and Tunisia. The range's highest peak is Toubkal, with an elevation of 4,167 metres (13,671 ft) in southwestern Morocco. It separates the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and Atlantic coastlines from the Sahara
Sahara
Desert.[1] The Atlas mountains are primarily inhabited by Berber populations.[2] The terms for 'mountain' in some Berber languages are adrar and adras, which are believed to be cognates of the toponym Atlas. The mountains are home to a number of plant and animal species unique in Africa, often more like those of Europe; many of them are endangered and some have already gone extinct
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto:  "In God
God
We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos  "E pluribus unum" (Latin) (de facto) "Out of many, one" "Annuit cœptis" (Latin) "He h
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Arab
Historically: Arabian mythology (Hubal · al-Lāt · Al-‘Uzzá · Manāt · Other Goddesses) Predominantly: Islam (Sunni · Shia · Sufi · Ibadi · Alawite · Ismaili) Sizable minority: Christianity (Eastern Orthodox · Maronite · Coptic Orthodox · Greek Orthodox · Greek Catholic · Chaldean Christian) Smaller minority: Other monotheistic religions (Druze · Bahá'í Faith · Sabianism · Bábism · Mandaeism)Related ethnic groupsOther Afroasiatic-speaking peoplesa Arab
Arab
ethnicity should not be confused with non- Arab
Arab
ethnicities that are also native to the Arab
Arab
world.[30] b Not all Arabs
Arabs
are Muslims
Muslims
and not all Muslims
Muslims
are Arabs
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Hasan Ibn Al-Nu'man
Hasan ibn an-Nu`uman al-Ghasani (Arabic: حسان بن النعمان الغساني‎ Hasān ibn an-Nu‘umān al-Ghasānī) (d. c. 700), amir (general) of the Umayyad army in North Africa. The nisba indicates he either came from Ghassān[1] in Yemen or was part of an Arab tribe originally from that area. Biography[edit] Dates in this section are according to Ibn Abd al-Hakam (work cited below), other medieval sources give a range of 4 years before and after. He was appointed governor of the Maghreb about the year 692. At this time, the Arab forces had still not managed to entirely defeat the Byzantine Greeks in North Africa. He captured the Byzantine city of Carthage after defeating Ioannes the Patrician and Tiberios III at the Battle of Carthage in 698
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