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Bell OH-58 Kiowa
The Bell OH-58 Kiowa
Kiowa
is a family of single-engine, single-rotor, military helicopters used for observation, utility, and direct fire support. Bell Helicopter
Bell Helicopter
manufactured the OH-58 for the United States Army based on its Model 206A JetRanger helicopter. The OH-58 was in continuous U.S. Army service from 1969 to 2017, when it was replaced in this role by the Boeing AH-64 Apache. The latest model, the OH-58D Kiowa
Kiowa
Warrior, is primarily operated in an armed reconnaissance role in support of ground troops. The OH-58 has been exported to Austria, Canada, Croatia, the Dominican Republic, Taiwan, Saudi Arabia, and Greece
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FOB MacKenzie
FOB MacKenzie formerly FOB Pacesetter (Samarra East Airbase under Saddam Hussein) was a U.S. Army
U.S. Army
Forward Operating Base
Forward Operating Base
that is located in Northern Iraq
Iraq
approximately 96 kilometers North of Baghdad, and about 12 kilometers Northeast of the Tigris River.Contents1 History 2 Current use 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] The airbase is served by a single 9,800-foot (3,000 m) long runway. FOB MacKenzie occupies an 18-square-kilometer site and is protected by an 18-kilometer security perimeter. According to the "Gulf War Air Power Survey", there were 12 hardened aircraft shelters at FOB MacKenzie in 1991. At each end of the main runway are hardened aircraft shelters knowns as "trapezoids" or "Yugos" which were built by Yugoslavian contractors some time prior to 1985. FOB MacKenzie is named for Ranald S
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Laser Designator
A laser designator is a laser light source which is used to designate a target. Laser
Laser
designators provide targeting for laser-guided bombs, missiles, or precision artillery munitions, such as the Paveway
Paveway
series of bombs, AGM-114 Hellfire, or the M712 Copperhead
M712 Copperhead
round, respectively. When a target is marked by a designator, the beam is invisible and does not shine continuously. Instead, a series of coded pulses of laser-light are fired. These signals bounce off the target into the sky, where they are detected by the seeker on the laser guided munition, which steers itself towards the centre of the reflected signal. Unless the people being targeted possess laser detection equipment or can hear aircraft overhead, it is extremely difficult for them to tell whether they are being marked or not. Laser
Laser
designators work best in clear atmospheric conditions
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Kiowa
Kiowa
Kiowa
(/ˈkaɪəwə, -wɑː, -weɪ/[2][3]) people are a Native American tribe and an indigenous people of the Great Plains
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Fort Knox
Fort Knox
Fort Knox
is a United States Army
United States Army
post in Kentucky
Kentucky
south of Louisville and north of Elizabethtown. It is also the site of the United States Bullion Depository, which is used to house a large portion of the United States' official gold reserves. The 109,000 acre (170 sq mi, 441 km²) base covers parts of Bullitt, Hardin, and Meade counties. It currently holds the Army Human Resources Center of Excellence to include the Army Human Resources Command. For 60 years, Fort Knox
Fort Knox
was the home of the U.S. Army Armor Center and the U.S. Army Armor School (now moved to Fort Benning), and was used by both the Army and the Marine Corps to train crews on the M1 Abrams main battle tank. The history of the U.S. Army's Cavalry and Armored forces, and of General George S
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AGM-114 Hellfire
7 in (178 millimeters) (17.8 cm)Warhead High-explosive anti-tank (HEAT); 20 lb (9 kg) tandem anti-armor Metal augmented charge
Metal augmented charge
(MAC); 18 lb (8 kg) shaped charge Blast fragmentationEngine Solid-fuel rocketWingspan 13 in (0.33 m, 330 mm)Operational range546 yd – 5 miles (500 m – 8 km)Speed Mach 1.3 (995 mph; 450 m/s; 1591 km/h)Guidance systemSemi-active laser homing millimeter wave radar seekerLaunch platformRotary- and fixed-wing platforms, unmanned combat air vehicles, tripods, ships, and ground vehiclesThe AGM-114 Hellfire
AGM-114 Hellfire
is an air-to-surface missile (ASM) first developed for anti-armor use, but later models were developed for precision strikes against other target types, and have been used in a number of targeted killings of high-profile individuals
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Operation Prime Chance
Stalemate (1981)Tavakol Nasr H-3Iranian offensives to free Iranian territory (1981-82)Samen-ol-A'emeh Tariq-ol-Qods Fath-ol-Mobin Beit-ol-Moqaddas (2nd Khorramshahr)Iranian offensives in Iraq (1982–84)Ramadan (1st Basra) Moslem Ibn Aqil Muharram ol-Harram Before the Dawn Dawn 1 Dawn 2 Dawn 3 Dawn 4 Dawn 5 (2nd Basra) Kheibar (3rd Basra) Kurdish rebellion (1983) Dawn 6 Dawn 7 MarshesIranian offensives in Iraq (1985–87)Badr (4th Basra) Dawn 8 (1st al-Faw) Dawn 9 Karbala 1 (Mehran) Karbala 2 Karbala 3 Fath 1 Karbala 4 (5th Basra) Karbala 5 (6th Basra) Karbala 6 Karbala 7 Karbala 8 (7th Basra) Karbala 9 Karbala 10 Nasr 4Final stages (1988)Beit-ol-Moqaddas 2 Al-Anfal Campaign
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Beach Ball
A beach ball is an inflatable ball for beach and water games. Their large size and light weight take little effort to propel; they travel very slowly and generally must be caught with two hands. The beach ball's invention is usually credited to Jonathon DeLonge in California
California
in 1938.[1][dubious – discuss] They became popular in the 1960s
1960s
series of films starring Annette Funicello
Annette Funicello
and Frankie Avalon and produced by William Asher, which were beach-themed and displayed beach balls. These movies include Beach
Beach
Party, Muscle Beach
Beach
Party, Beach
Beach
Blanket Bingo and How to Stuff a Wild Bikini.[2]Contents1 Design 2 Uses 3 See also 4 ReferencesDesign[edit] Beach
Beach
balls range from hand-sized to over 3 feet (1 m) across or larger
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Ball Aerospace & Technologies
Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. (commonly Ball Aerospace) is an American manufacturer of spacecraft, components, and instruments for national defense, civil space and commercial space applications. The company is a wholly owned subsidiary of Ball Corporation
Ball Corporation
(NYSE: BLL), with primary offices in Boulder and facilities in Broomfield and Westminster in Colorado, with smaller offices in New Mexico, Ohio, Northern Virginia, Missouri, and Maryland. Ball Aerospace began building pointing controls for military rockets in 1956, and later won a contract to build one of NASA’s first spacecraft, the Orbiting Solar Observatory
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Thermographic Camera
A thermographic camera (also called an infrared camera or thermal imaging camera) is a device that forms an image using infrared radiation, similar to a common camera that forms an image using visible light. Instead of the 400–700 nanometre range of the visible light camera, infrared cameras operate in wavelengths as long as 14,000 nm (14 µm). Their use is called thermography.Contents1 History1.1 Discovery and research of infrared radiation 1.2 First thermographic camera 1.3 Smart sensors2 Theory of operation 3 In use 4 Types4.1 Cooled infrared detectors 4.2 Uncooled infrared detectors5 Applications 6 Specifications 7 See also 8 ReferencesHistory[edit] Discovery and research of infrared radiation[edit] Infrared
Infrared
was discovered in 1800 by Sir William Herschel
Sir William Herschel
as a form of radiation beyond red light
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Laser Rangefinder
A laser rangefinder is a rangefinder which uses a laser beam to determine the distance to an object. The most common form of laser rangefinder operates on the time of flight principle by sending a laser pulse in a narrow beam towards the object and measuring the time taken by the pulse to be reflected off the target and returned to the sender. Due to the high speed of light, this technique is not appropriate for high precision sub-millimeter measurements, where triangulation and other techniques are often used. Contents1 Pulse 2 Precision 3 Range and range error 4 Calculation 5 Technologies 6 Applications6.1 Military 6.2 3-D modeling 6.3 Forestry 6.4 Sports 6.5 Industrial production processes 6.6 Laser
Laser
measuring tools7 Price 8 Safety 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksPulse[edit] The pulse may be coded to reduce the chance that the rangefinder can be jammed
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Wire Strike Protection System
The wire strike protection system (WSPS) (Developed for the OH-58 / Bell 206
Bell 206
in 1979) is a system of components designed to mitigate the risk of wire strikes while flying helicopters at nap-of-the-earth altitudes, as well as takeoffs and landings. The system is mounted around the front of many U.S. Marine Corps, U.S. Navy, U.S. Air Force, U.S. Army,[1] and some civilian helicopters. The larger CH-46 and CH-47 tandem-rotor helicopters have no WSPS installed. The WSPS appears as two guidance swords at the upper and lower front of the cabin protruding forward at 45° above and below the horizontal. In each of the inner corners to the cabin a large, fixed pair of scissors made of hardened steel is mounted whose opening angle is so small that a speedy or forced incoming steel cable is cut through. These swords are often mistaken for radio antennas
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Bell YOH-4
A bell is a directly struck idiophone percussion instrument. Most bells have the shape of a hollow cup that when struck vibrates in a single strong strike tone, with its sides forming an efficient resonator. The strike may be made by an internal "clapper" or "uvula", an external hammer, or—in small bells—by a small loose sphere enclosed within the body of the bell (jingle bell). Bells are usually cast from bell metal (a type of bronze) for its resonant properties, but can also be made from other hard materials; this depends on the function
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Warrant Officer (United States)
In the United States Armed Forces, the ranks of warrant officer (grades W‑1 to W‑5; see NATO: WO1–WO5) are rated as officers above the senior-most enlisted ranks, including all candidates, and cadets and midshipmen, but subordinate to the officer grade of O‑1 (NATO: OF‑1).[1][2][3] This application differs from the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
and other militaries, where warrant officers are the most senior of the other ranks (NATO: OR‑8 and OR‑9), equivalent to the US Armed Forces grades of E‑8 and E‑9. Warrant officers are highly skilled, single-track specialty officers, and while the ranks are authorized by Congress, each branch of the uniformed services selects, manages, and uses warrant officers in slightly different ways. For appointment to warrant officer one (W‑1), a warrant is approved by the secretary of the respective service
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Lieutenant Colonel
Lieutenant
Lieutenant
colonel is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies, most marine forces and some air forces of the world, above a major and below a colonel
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Vietnam War
North Vietnamese victoryWithdrawal of American-led forces from Indochina Communist governments take power in South Vietnam, Cambodia
Cambodia
and Laos South Vietnam
South Vietnam
is annexed
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