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Belarusian Literature
Belarusian literature
Belarusian literature
(Belarusian: Беларуская лiтаратура, translit. Bielaruskaja litaratura) is the writing produced, both prose and poetry, by speakers (not necessarily native speakers) of the Belarusian language.Contents1 History1.1 Pre-17th century 1.2 18th and 19th centuries 1.3 Early 20th century 1.4 World War I 1.5 Interwar period 1.6 Post-war period2 Famous Belarusian writers2.1 Inter-war period 2.2 After-war years 2.3 Contemporary writers 2.4 Belarusian and Polish writers2.4.1 17th century 2.4.2 19th century3 ReferencesHistory[edit] Pre-17th century[edit] Belarusian literature
Belarusian literature
was formed from the common basis of Kievan Rus' literary tradition, which also gave rise to Ukrainian literature
Ukrainian literature
and Russian literature
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Ivan Shamiakin
Ivan Shamiakin (Belarusian: Іван Шамякін, 30 January 1921 – 14 October 2004) was a Soviet Belarusian writer, he was perhaps one of the most prolific writers of the Soviet BSSR, writing in a socialist realist style. He was born in 1921 the village of Karma, Homiel Voblast, Belarus, studied construction engineering in a vocational school (1940), then fought in World War II, taking part in battles near Murmansk and in Poland. After the war he studied at the Homel Pedagogical University, worked as an editor and had different Communist Party positions in the local party offices in Belarus. In 1963 he worked at the United Nations as a part of the Belarusian UN delegation. In 1980 Shamiakin became the chief editor of the Soviet Belarusian Encyclopedia
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Soviet Union
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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Vilnius
Vilnius
Vilnius
(Lithuanian pronunciation: [ˈvʲɪlʲnʲʊs] ( listen), see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania
Lithuania
and its largest city, with a population of 574,221 as of 2017[update].[6] Vilnius
Vilnius
is in the southeast part of Lithuania
Lithuania
and is the second largest city in the Baltic states. Vilnius
Vilnius
is the seat of the main government institutions of Lithuania
Lithuania
and the Vilnius
Vilnius
District Municipality
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Yakub Kolas
Yakub Kolas
Yakub Kolas
(also Jakub Kołas, Belarusian: Яку́б Ко́лас, November 3 [O.S. October 22] 1882 – August 13, 1956), real name Kanstancin Mickievič (Міцке́віч Канстанці́н Міха́йлавіч) was a Belarusian writer, People's Poet of the Byelorussian SSR
Byelorussian SSR
(1926), and member (1928) and vice-president (from 1929) of the Belarusian Academy of Sciences. In his works, Yakub Kolas
Yakub Kolas
was known for his sympathy towards the ordinary Belarusian peasantry. This was evident in his pen name 'Kolas', meaning 'ear of grain' in Belarusian. He wrote collections of poems Songs of Captivity (1908) and Songs of Grief (Belarusian: Песьні-жальбы, 1910), poems A New Land (Belarusian: Новая зямля, 1923) and Simon the Musician (Belarusian: Сымон-музыка, 1925), stories, and plays
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World War I
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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Belarusian People's Republic
The Belarusian People's Republic
Republic
(Belarusian: Белару́ская Наро́дная Рэспу́бліка, [bʲeɫaˈruskaja naˈrodnaja rɛsˈpublʲika], transliterated as Bielarúskaja Naródnaja Respúblika, BNR[3]), (Russian: Белорусская народная республика) (transliterated as Byelarusskaya narodnaya ryespublika), historically referred to as the White Ruthenian Democratic Republic
Republic
(German: Weißruthenische Volksrepublik[4]) was a failed attempt to create a Belarusian state on the territory controlled by the German Imperial Army
German Imperial Army
during World War I. The BNR existed from 1918 to 1919. The BNR was declared on March 9, 1918 in Minsk
Minsk
by the members of the Executive Committee of the First All-Belarusian Congress[1], and two weeks later, on March 25, 1918 it was proclaimed independent[5]
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Kaunas
Kaunas
Kaunas
(/ˈkaʊnəs/; Lithuanian: [ˈkɐʊˑnɐs] ( listen); also see other names) is the second-largest city in Lithuania
Lithuania
and has historically been a leading centre of Lithuanian economic, academic, and cultural life. Kaunas
Kaunas
was the biggest city and the centre of a county in Trakai Municipality of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
since 1413. In the Russian Empire, it was the capital of the Kaunas Governorate
Kaunas Governorate
from 1843 to 1915. It served as temporary capital of Lithuania
Lithuania
during the interwar period, while the traditional capital of Vilnius
Vilnius
was part of Poland
Poland
between 1920 and 1939
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Minsk
Minsk
Minsk
(Belarusian: Мінск, pronounced [mʲinsk]; Russian: Минск, [mʲinsk]) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers. As the national capital, Minsk
Minsk
has a special administrative status in Belarus
Belarus
and is the administrative centre of Minsk Region
Minsk Region
(voblast) and Minsk
Minsk
raion (district). In 2013, it had a population of 2,002,600. Minsk
Minsk
is the administrative capital of the Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS) and seat of the Executive Secretary. The earliest historical references to Minsk
Minsk
date to the 11th century (1067), when it was noted as a provincial city within the Principality of Polotsk. The settlement developed on the rivers
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Socialist Realism
Socialist realism
Socialist realism
is a style of idealized realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and was imposed as the official style in that country between 1932 and 1988, as well as in other socialist countries after World War II. [1] Socialist realism
Socialist realism
is characterized by the glorified depiction of communist values, such as the emancipation of the proletariat, by means of realistic imagery.[2] Although related, it should not be confused with social realism, a type of art that realistically depicts subjects of social concern.[3] Socialist realism
Socialist realism
was the predominant form of approved art in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from its development in the early 1920s to its eventual fall from official status beginning in the late 1960s until the breakup of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Freedom Of Speech
Freedom
Freedom
of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.[2][3][4][5] The term "freedom of expression" is sometimes used synonymously but includes any act of seeking, receiving, and imparting information or ideas, regardless of the medium used. Freedom
Freedom
of expression is recognized as a human right under article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
(UDHR) and recognized in international human rights law in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
Rights
(ICCPR)
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Realism (arts)
Realism in the arts is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, implausible, exotic, and supernatural elements. Realism has been prevalent in the arts at many periods, and is in large part a matter of technique and training, and the avoidance of stylization. In the visual arts, illusionistic realism is the accurate depiction of lifeforms, perspective, and the details of light and colour. Realist works of art may emphasize the mundane, ugly or sordid, such as works of social realism, regionalism, or kitchen sink realism. There have been various realism movements in the arts, such as the opera style of verismo, literary realism, theatrical realism, and Italian neorealist cinema
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Svetlana Alexievich
Svetlana Alexandrovna Alexievich[1] (born 31 May 1948) is a Belarusian investigative journalist and non-fiction prose writer who writes in Russian. She was awarded the 2015 Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
"for her polyphonic writings, a monument to suffering and courage in our time".[2][3][4][5] She is the first writer from Belarus to receive the award.[6][7]Contents1 Background 2 Literary work 3 Awards and honours 4 Books 5 References 6 External links6.1 Interviews 6.2 Excerpts 6.3 Articles about Svetlana Alexievich 6.4 Academic Articles about Svetlana Alexievich's works 6.5 OtherBackground[edit] Born in the west Ukrainian town of Stanislav (since 1962 Ivano-Frankivsk) to a Belarusian father and a Ukrainian mother,[8] Svetlana Alexievich
Svetlana Alexievich
grew up in Belarus
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Nobel Prize In Literature
The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature
Literature
(Swedish: Nobelpriset i litteratur) has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning).[2][3] Though individual works are sometimes cited as being particularly noteworthy, here "work" refers to an author's work as a whole. The Swedish Academy decides who, if anyone, will receive the prize in any given year. The academy announces the name of the chosen laureate in early October
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Yanka Kupala
Jánka Kupála (akas: Yanka Kupala, Janka Kupała, Belarusian: Я́нка Купа́ла; July 7 [O.S. June 25] 1882 – June 28, 1942) – was the pen name of Iván Daminíkavich Lutsévich (Ivan Daminikavič Łucevič, Belarusian: Іва́н Даміні́кавіч Луцэ́віч), a Belarusian poet and writer. Kupala is considered one of the greatest Belarusian-language writers of the 20th century.Contents1 Biography1.1 Early life 1.2 In Vilnius
Vilnius
and St. Petersburg 1.3 During the Soviet period2 Legacy 3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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