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Belarusian Cuisine
BELARUSIAN CUISINE shares many similarities with cuisines of other Eastern , Central and Northeastern European countries, basing predominantly bases on meat and various vegetables typical for the region. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Meals * 3 Cereals * 4 Vegetables * 5 Soups * 6 Meat * 7 Dumplings * 8 Dairy products
Dairy products
* 9 Beverages * 10 Minority cuisines * 11 Potatoes * 12 Salads * 13 Fish * 14 Side dishes * 15 References * 16 External links * 16.1 Additional sources HISTORY Belarus
Belarus
cuisine has predominantly Slavic roots
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Oatmeal
OATMEAL is made of hulled oat grains – groats – that have either been ground, steel-cut , or rolled . Ground oats are also called "white oats". Steel-cut oats are known as "coarse oatmeal" or "Irish oatmeal " or "pinhead oats". Rolled oats
Rolled oats
can be either thick or thin, and may be "old-fashioned" or "quick" or "instant". The term "oatmeal" is also used in the U.S., Australia, and parts of Canada as another word for an oat porridge made from either the ground, steel-cut, or rolled oats
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Cereal
A CEREAL is any grass cultivated for the edible components of its grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis ), composed of the endosperm , germ , and bran . Cereal
Cereal
grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop and are therefore staple crops . Edible grains from other plant families, such as buckwheat ( Polygonaceae ), quinoa ( Amaranthaceae
Amaranthaceae
) and chia ( Lamiaceae
Lamiaceae
), are referred to as pseudocereals . In their natural form (as in whole grain ), cereals are a rich source of vitamins , minerals , carbohydrates , fats , oils, and protein . When refined by the removal of the bran and germ, the remaining endosperm is mostly carbohydrate . In some developing nations , grain in the form of rice , wheat , millet , or maize constitutes a majority of daily sustenance
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Barley
BARLEY ( Hordeum
Hordeum
vulgare L.), a member of the grass family , is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally. It was one of the first cultivated grains, particularly in Eurasia
Eurasia
as early as 10,000 years ago. Barley
Barley
has been used as animal fodder , as a source of fermentable material for beer and certain distilled beverages , and as a component of various health foods . It is used in soups and stews, and in barley bread of various cultures. Barley
Barley
grains are commonly made into malt in a traditional and ancient method of preparation. In 2014, barley was ranked fourth among grains in quantity produced (144 million tonnes ) behind corn, rice and wheat
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Bun
A BUN is a small, sometimes sweet, bread , or bread roll . Though they come in many shapes and sizes, they are most commonly hand-sized or smaller, with a round top and flat bottom. Buns are usually made from flour , sugar , milk , yeast and butter . Common varieties contain small fruit or nuts, are topped with icing or caramel , or filled with jam or cream . Some types of buns are filled with various meats . "Bun" may also refer to particular types of filled dumplings , such as Chinese baozi . Some of these types of dumplings may be bread-like in texture. A bun is normally made from dough that has been enriched with sugar and butter and sometimes egg. Without any of these the dough remains to be 'bread dough' rather than 'bun dough' and the resultant product will be called a roll, rather than a bun
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Buckwheat
BUCKWHEAT ( Fagopyrum esculentum), also known as COMMON BUCKWHEAT, JAPANESE BUCKWHEAT and SILVERHULL BUCKWHEAT, is a plant cultivated for its grain-like seeds and as a cover crop . A related and more bitter species, Fagopyrum tataricum , a domesticated food plant common in Asia, but not as common in Europe
Europe
or North America is also referred to as buckwheat. Despite the name, buckwheat is not related to wheat , as it is not a grass . Instead, buckwheat is related to sorrel , knotweed , and rhubarb . Because its seeds are eaten and rich in complex carbohydrates, it is referred to as a pseudocereal . The cultivation of buckwheat grain declined sharply in the 20th century with the adoption of nitrogen fertilizer that increased the productivity of other staples
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Slavic Peoples
SLAVS are the largest Indo-European ethno-linguistic group in Europe . They are native to Central Europe
Europe
, Eastern Europe
Europe
, Southeastern Europe
Europe
, Northeastern Europe
Europe
, North Asia , Central Asia
Central Asia
and West Asia . Slavs
Slavs
speak Slavic languages
Slavic languages
of the Balto-Slavic language group. From the early 6th century they spread to inhabit most of Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. States with Slavic languages
Slavic languages
comprise over 50% of the territory of Europe, therefore it is the largest ethno-linguistic group in Europe by land area
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Wheat
References: Serial No. 42236 ITIS 2002-09-22 WHEAT is a grass widely cultivated for its seed , a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food . There are many species of wheat which together make up the genus TRITICUM; the most widely grown is common wheat (T. aestivum). The archaeological record suggests that wheat was first cultivated in the regions of the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
around 9600 BCE. Botanically, the wheat kernel is a type of fruit called a caryopsis . Wheat
Wheat
is grown on more land area than any other food crop (220.4 million hectares , 2014). World trade in wheat is greater than for all other crops combined. In 2016, world production of wheat was 749 million tonnes , making it the second most-produced cereal after maize
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Rye Bread
RYE BREAD is a type of bread made with various proportions of flour from rye grain. It can be light or dark in color, depending on the type of flour used and the addition of coloring agents, and is typically denser than bread made from wheat flour. It is higher in fiber than white bread and is often darker in color and stronger in flavor. Dark rye bread was considered a staple through the Middle Ages
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Vodka
VODKA (from Russian : водка , Polish : wódka ) is a distilled beverage composed primarily of water and ethanol , sometimes with traces of impurities and flavorings. Traditionally, vodka is made by the distillation of cereal grains or potatoes that have been fermented , though some modern brands use other substances, such as fruits or sugar. Since the 1890s, the standard Polish, Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian and Czech vodkas are 40% alcohol by volume ABV (80 US proof ), a percentage that is widely misattributed to Dmitri Mendeleev
Dmitri Mendeleev
. The European Union
European Union
has established a minimum of 37.5% ABV for any "European vodka" to be named as such. Products sold as "vodka" in the United States must have a minimum alcohol content of 40%. Even with these loose restrictions, most vodka sold contains 40% ABV
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Cake
CAKE is a form of sweet dessert that is typically baked . In its oldest forms, cakes were modifications of breads , but cakes now cover a wide range of preparations that can be simple or elaborate, and that share features with other desserts such as pastries , meringues , custards , and pies . Typical cake ingredients are flour , sugar , eggs , butter or oil , a liquid, and leavening agents, such as baking soda or baking powder . Common additional ingredients and flavourings include dried , candied , or fresh fruit , nuts , cocoa , and extracts such as vanilla, with numerous substitutions for the primary ingredients. Cakes can also be filled with fruit preserves or dessert sauces (like pastry cream ), iced with buttercream or other icings , and decorated with marzipan , piped borders, or candied fruit. Cake is often served as a celebratory dish on ceremonial occasions, such as weddings , anniversaries , and birthdays
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Cabbage
CABBAGE or HEADED CABBAGE (comprising several cultivars of BRASSICA OLERACEA ) is a leafy green or purple biennial plant , grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads. It is descended from the wild cabbage, B. oleracea var. oleracea , and is closely related to broccoli and cauliflower (var. botrytis), Brussels sprouts (var. gemmifera) and savoy cabbage (var. sabauda) which are sometimes called cole crops . Cabbage
Cabbage
heads generally range from 0.5 to 4 kilograms (1 to 9 lb), and can be green, purple and white. Smooth-leafed firm-headed green cabbages are the most common, with smooth-leafed red and crinkle-leafed savoy cabbages of both colors seen more rarely. It is a multi-layered vegetable. Under conditions of long sunlit days such as are found at high northern latitudes in summer, cabbages can grow much larger. Some records are discussed at the end of the history section
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Milk
MILK is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals . It is the primary source of nutrition for infant mammals (including humans who breastfeed) before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum , which carries the mother's antibodies to its young and can reduce the risk of many diseases. It contains many other nutrients including protein and lactose . As an agricultural product, milk is extracted from non-human mammals during or soon after pregnancy. Dairy
Dairy
farms produced about 730 million tonnes of milk in 2011, from 260 million dairy cows. India
India
is the world's largest producer of milk, and is the leading exporter of skimmed milk powder, yet it exports few other milk products
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Legume
A LEGUME (/ˈlɛɡjuːm/ or /ˌləˈɡjuːm/ ) is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae). Legumes are grown agriculturally, primarily for their grain seed called PULSE, for livestock forage and silage , and as soil-enhancing green manure . Well-known legumes include alfalfa , clover , peas , beans , chickpeas , lentils , lupin bean , mesquite , carob , soybeans , peanuts and tamarind . Fabaceae is the most common family found in tropical rainforests and in dry forests in the Americas and Africa . A legume fruit is a simple dry fruit that develops from a simple carpel and usually dehisces (opens along a seam) on two sides. A common name for this type of fruit is a pod, although the term "pod" is also applied to a number of other fruit types, such as that of vanilla (a capsule ) and of the radish (a silique )
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Protein
PROTEINS (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ᵻnz/ ) are large biomolecules , or macromolecules , consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues . Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms , including catalysing metabolic reactions , DNA replication
DNA replication
, responding to stimuli , and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes , and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide . A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides , or sometimes oligopeptides
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Carrot
The CARROT ( Daucus carota subsp. sativus) is a root vegetable , usually orange in colour, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow cultivars exist. Carrots are a domesticated form of the wild carrot , Daucus carota, native to Europe and southwestern Asia. The plant probably originated in Persia and was originally cultivated for its leaves and seeds. The most commonly eaten part of the plant is the taproot , although the greens are sometimes eaten as well. The domestic carrot has been selectively bred for its greatly enlarged, more palatable, less woody-textured taproot. The carrot is a biennial plant in the umbellifer family Apiaceae
Apiaceae
. At first, it grows a rosette of leaves while building up the enlarged taproot. Fast-growing cultivars mature within three months (90 days) of sowing the seed, while slower-maturing cultivars are harvested four months later (120 days)
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