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Behistun Inscription
The Behistun Inscription
Behistun Inscription
(also Bisotun, Bistun or Bisutun; Persian: بیستون‎, Old Persian: Bagastana, meaning "the place of god") is a multilingual inscription and large rock relief on a cliff at Mount Behistun
Mount Behistun
in the Kermanshah Province
Kermanshah Province
of Iran, near the city of Kermanshah
Kermanshah
in western Iran. It was crucial to the decipherment of cuneiform script. Authored by Darius the Great
Darius the Great
sometime between his coronation as king of the Persian Empire in the summer of 522 BC and his death in autumn of 486 BC, the inscription begins with a brief autobiography of Darius, including his ancestry and lineage
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Shirin
Shirin
Shirin
(? – 628 AD) (Persian: شيرين‎) was a wife of the Sassanid
Sassanid
Persian Shahanshah
Shahanshah
(king of kings), Khosrow Parviz. In the revolution after the death of Khosrow's father Hormizd IV, the General Bahram Chobin
Bahram Chobin
took power over the Persian empire. Shirin
Shirin
fled with Khosrow to Syria, where they lived under the protection of Byzantine emperor Maurice. In 591, Khosrow returned to Persia
Persia
to take control of the empire and Shirin
Shirin
was made queen. She used her new influence to support the Christian
Christian
minority in Iran, but the political situation demanded that she do so discreetly
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Khosrau II
Khosrow II
Khosrow II
(Chosroes II in classical sources; Middle Persian: Husrō(y)), entitled "Aparvēz" ("The Victorious"), also Khusraw Parvēz (New Persian: خسرو پرویز), was the last great king of the Sasanian Empire, reigning from 590 to 628.[1] He was the son of Hormizd IV
Hormizd IV
(reigned 579–590) and the grandson of Khosrow I
Khosrow I
(reigned 531–579). He was the last king of Persia
Persia
to have a lengthy reign before the Muslim conquest of Iran, which began five years after his death by execution
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Limestone
Limestone
Limestone
is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years
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Babylonia
Babylonia
Babylonia
(/ˌbæbəˈloʊniə, -ˈloʊnjə/) was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(present-day Iraq). A small Amorite-ruled state emerged in 1894 BC, which contained the minor administrative town of Babylon.[1] It was merely a small provincial town during the Akkadian
Akkadian
Empire (2335–2154 BC) but greatly expanded during the reign of Hammurabi
Hammurabi
in the first half of the 18th century BC and became a major capital city. During the reign of Hammurabi
Hammurabi
and afterwards, Babylonia
Babylonia
was called "the country of Akkad" (Māt Akkadī in Akkadian).[2][3] It was often involved in rivalry with the older state of Assyria
Assyria
to the north and Elam
Elam
to the east in Ancient Iran
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Medes
The Medes[N 1] (/miːdz/, Old Persian
Old Persian
Māda-, Ancient Greek: Μῆδοι, Hebrew: מָדַי‬) were an ancient Iranian people[N 2] who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran
Iran
and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and located in the Hamadan
Hamadan
(Ecbatana) region.[5] Their emergence in Iran
Iran
is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule
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Babylon
Babylon
Babylon
(𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠KAN4.DIĜIR.RAKI Akkadian: Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; Arabic: بَابِل‎, Bābil; Hebrew: בָּבֶל‎, Bavel; Classical Syriac: ܒܒܠ‎, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the 18th to 6th centuries BC. The city was built on the Euphrates
Euphrates
river and divided in equal parts along its left and right banks, with steep embankments to contain the river's seasonal floods
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Ecbatana
Ecbatana
Ecbatana
(/ɛkˈbætənə/; Old Persian: 𐏃𐎥𐎶𐎫𐎠𐎴 Hagmatāna or Haŋmatāna,[1] literally "the place of gathering", Aramaic: אַחְמְתָא‎, Ancient Greek: Ἀγβάτανα in Aeschylus
Aeschylus
and Herodotus, elsewhere Ἐκβάτανα, Akkadian: 𒆳𒀀𒃵𒋫𒉡 kura-gam-ta-nu in the Nabonidus Chronicle) was an ancient city in Media in western Iran. It is believed that Ecbatana
Ecbatana
is in Tell Hagmatana (Tappe-ye Hagmatāna), an archaeological mound in Hamedan.[2] According to Herodotus, Ecbatana
Ecbatana
was chosen as the Medes' capital in the late 8th century BC by Deioces.[2] Under the Achaemenid
Achaemenid
Persian kings, Ecbatana, situated at the foot of Mount Alvand, became a summer residence
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Bow (weapon)
The bow and arrow is a ranged weapon system consisting of an elastic launching device (bow) and long-shafted projectiles (arrows). Archery
Archery
is the art, practice or skill of using bows to shoot arrows.[1] A person who shoots arrows with a bow is called a bowman or an archer. Someone who makes bows is known as a bowyer,[2] one who makes arrows is a fletcher,[3] and one who manufactures metal arrowheads is an arrowsmith.[4] The use of bow and arrows by humans for hunting practices predates recorded history and were common to most prehistoric cultures
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Faravahar
The Faravahar
Faravahar
(Persian: فروهر‎), also known as Farr-e Kiyani (فر کیانی), is one of the best-known symbols of Iran. It symbolizes Zoroastrianism, the main religion of pre-Islamic Persia, and Iranian nationalism.[1][2] The Faravahar
Faravahar
is the most worn pendant among Iranians and has become a secular national symbol, rather than a religious symbol. It symbolizes good thoughts (پندار نیک pendār-e nik), good words (گفتار نیک goftār-e nik) and good deeds (کردار نیک kerdār-e nik), which are the basic tenets and principles of Zoroastrianism.Contents1 Etymology 2 In Iranian culture 3 Gallery 4 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The New Persian
New Persian
word فروهر is read as forouhar or faravahar (it was pronounced as furōhar in Classical Persian)
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Iron
Iron
Iron
is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from Latin: ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is by mass the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust. Its abundance in rocky planets like Earth
Earth
is due to its abundant production by fusion in high-mass stars, where it is the last element to be produced with release of energy before the violent collapse of a supernova, which scatters the iron into space. Like the other group 8 elements, ruthenium and osmium, iron exists in a wide range of oxidation states, −2 to +7, although +2 and +3 are the most common. Elemental iron occurs in meteoroids and other low oxygen environments, but is reactive to oxygen and water. Fresh iron surfaces appear lustrous silvery-gray, but oxidize in normal air to give hydrated iron oxides, commonly known as rust
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Lead
Lead
Lead
is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin
Latin
plumbum) and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials. Lead
Lead
is soft and malleable, and has a relatively low melting point. When freshly cut, lead is bluish-white; it tarnishes to a dull gray color when exposed to air. Lead
Lead
has the highest atomic number of any stable element and three of its isotopes each conclude a major decay chain of heavier elements. Lead
Lead
is a relatively unreactive post-transition metal. Its weak metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature; lead and lead oxides react with acids and bases, and it tends to form covalent bonds. Compounds of lead
Compounds of lead
are usually found in the +2 oxidation state rather than the +4 state common with lighter members of the carbon group
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Sassanid
Temporarily controlled during the Byzantine– Sasanian
Sasanian
War of 602–628:  Abkhazia[12]  Russia (  Dagestan
Dagestan
and  Chechnya)  Turkey  Lebanon  Israel   Palestinian National Authority
Palestinian National Authority
( West Bank
West Bank
and Gaza strip)[13]  Jordan  EgyptPart of a series on theHistory of IranMythological historyPishdadian dynasty Kayanian dynastyAncient periodBCPrehistory of Iran Ancient Times–4000Kura–Araxes culture 3400–2000Proto-Elamite 3200–2700Jiroft culture c. 3100 – c. 2200Elam 2700–539 Akkadian
Akkadian
Empire 2400–2150Kassites c. 1500 – c
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Decipherment
In philology, decipherment is the discovery of the meaning of texts written in ancient or obscure languages or scripts.[1] Decipherment in cryptography refers to decryption.[2] The term is used sardonically in everyday language to describe attempts to read poor handwriting.[3] In genetics, decipherment is the successful attempt to understand DNA, which is viewed metaphorically as a text containing word-like units.[4] Throughout science the term decipherment is synonymous with the understanding of biological and chemical phenomena.Contents1 Ancient languages 2 Decipherers 3 See also3.1 Deciphered scripts 3.2 Undeciphered scripts 3.3 Undeciphered texts4 ReferencesAncient languages[edit] In many cases, a multilingual artifact is necessary to facilitate decipherment, the Rosetta Stone
Rosetta Stone
being the classic example
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Ctesias
Ctesias (/ˈtiːʒəs/; Ancient Greek: Κτησίας, Ktēsíās), also known as Ctesias the Cnidian or Ctesias of Cnidus, was a Greek physician and historian from the town of Cnidus
Cnidus
in Caria
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Zeus
Zeus
Zeus
(/zjuːs/;[3] Greek: Ζεύς Zeús [zdeǔ̯s])[4] is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus. His name is cognate with the first element of his Roman equivalent Jupiter. His mythologies and powers are similar, though not identical, to those of Indo-European deities such as Indra, Jupiter, Perkūnas, Perun, Thor, and Odin.[5][6][7] Zeus
Zeus
is the child of Cronus
Cronus
and Rhea, the youngest of his siblings to be born, though sometimes reckoned the eldest as the others required disgorging from Cronus's stomach. In most traditions, he is married to Hera, by whom he is usually said to have fathered Ares, Hebe, and Hephaestus.[8] At the oracle of Dodona, his consort was said to be Dione, by whom the Iliad
Iliad
states that he fathered Aphrodite.[11] Zeus was also infamous for his erotic escapades
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