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Behistun Inscription
The BEHISTUN INSCRIPTION (also BISOTUN, BISTUN or BISUTUN; Persian : بیستون‎‎, Old Persian : BAGASTANA, meaning "the place of god") is a multilingual inscription and large rock relief on a cliff at Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran , near the city of Kermanshah in western Iran . It was crucial to the decipherment of cuneiform script . Authored by Darius the Great sometime between his coronation as king of the Persian Empire in the summer of 522 BC and his death in autumn of 486 BC, the inscription begins with a brief autobiography of Darius, including his ancestry and lineage
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Babylon
BABYLON (𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 Akkadian
Akkadian
: Bābili or Babilim; Aramaic
Aramaic
: בבל, Babel; Arabic : بَابِل‎‎, Bābil; Hebrew : בָּבֶל‎‎, Bavel) was a major city of ancient Mesopotamia . The city was built upon the Euphrates
Euphrates
river and divided in equal parts along its left and right banks, with steep embankments to contain the river's seasonal floods. Babylon
Babylon
was originally a small Akkadian
Akkadian
city dating from the period of the Akkadian
Akkadian
Empire c. 2300 BC. The town became an independent city-state with the rise of the First Amorite Babylonian Dynasty in the nineteenth century BC
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Ecbatana
ECBATANA (/ɛkˈbætənə/ ; Old Persian : 𐏃𐎥𐎶𐎫𐎠𐎴 Hagmatāna or Haŋmatāna, literally "the place of gathering", Aramaic : אַחְמְתָא‎‎, Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Ἀγβάτανα in Aeschylus and Herodotus
Herodotus
, elsewhere Ἐκβάτανα, Akkadian
Akkadian
: 𒆳𒀀𒃵𒋫𒉡 kura-gam-ta-nu in the Nabonidus Chronicle
Nabonidus Chronicle
) was an ancient city in Media in western Iran
Iran
. It is believed that Ecbatana
Ecbatana
is in Tell Hagmatana (Tappe-ye Hagmatāna), near Hamedan
Hamedan
. but the history of the city is controversial. Excavations at Kaboutar Ahang have revealed stone age tools and pottery from 1400 to 1200 BC
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Bow (weapon)
The BOW AND ARROW is a projectile weapon system (a bow with arrows ) that predates recorded history and is common to most cultures . Archery
Archery
is the art, practice, or skill of applying it. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 History * 3 Construction * 3.1 Parts of the bow * 3.2 Arrows * 3.3 Arrowheads * 3.4 Bowstrings * 4 Types of bow * 5 Crossbow
Crossbow
* 6 Citations * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links DESCRIPTIONA bow is a flexible arc that shoots aerodynamic projectiles called arrows . A string joins the two ends of the bow and when the string is drawn back, the ends of the bow are flexed. When the string is released, the potential energy of the flexed stick is transformed into the kinetic energy of the arrow. Archery
Archery
is the art or sport of shooting arrows from bows
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Iron
IRON is a chemical element with symbol FE (from Latin : ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series . It is by mass the most common element on Earth
Earth
, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core . It is the fourth most common element in the Earth\'s crust . Its abundance in rocky planets like Earth
Earth
is due to its abundant production by fusion in high-mass stars , where it is the last element to be produced with release of energy before the violent collapse of a supernova , which scatters the iron into space. Like the other group 8 elements , ruthenium and osmium , iron exists in a wide range of oxidation states , −2 to +7, although +2 and +3 are the most common. Elemental iron occurs in meteoroids and other low oxygen environments, but is reactive to oxygen and water
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Babylonia
BABYLONIA was an ancient Akkadian
Akkadian
-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq
Iraq
). A small Amorite -ruled state emerged in 1894 BC, which contained at this time the minor administrative town of Babylon
Babylon
. Babylon
Babylon
greatly expanded from the small provincial town that it had originally been during the Akkadian Empire (2335-2154 BC) during the reign of Hammurabi
Hammurabi
in the first half of the 18th century BC, becoming a major capital city. During the reign of Hammurabi
Hammurabi
and afterwards, Babylonia
Babylonia
was called Māt Akkadī "the country of Akkad" in the Akkadian
Akkadian
language
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Limestone
LIMESTONE is a sedimentary rock , composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral , forams and molluscs . Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite , which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Limestone
Limestone
has numerous uses: as a building material , an essential component of concrete ( Portland cement
Portland cement
), as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints , as a chemical feedstock for the production of lime , as a soil conditioner , or as a popular decorative addition to rock gardens
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Rosetta Stone
The ROSETTA STONE is a granodiorite stele , found in 1799, inscribed with three versions of a decree issued at Memphis, Egypt
Memphis, Egypt
in 196 BC during the Ptolemaic dynasty
Ptolemaic dynasty
on behalf of King Ptolemy V . The top and middle texts are in Ancient Egyptian using hieroglyphic script and Demotic script, respectively, while the bottom is in Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
. As the decree has only minor differences between the three versions, the Rosetta
Rosetta
Stone proved to be the key to deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphs . The stone, carved in black granodiorite during the Hellenistic period , is believed to have originally been displayed within a temple , possibly at nearby Sais
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Egyptian Hieroglyph
EGYPTIAN HIEROGLYPHS (/ˈhaɪərəˌɡlɪf, -roʊ-/ ) were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
. It combined logographic , syllabic and alphabetic elements, with a total of some 1,000 distinct characters. Cursive hieroglyphs were used for religious literature on papyrus and wood. The later hieratic and demotic Egyptian scripts are derived from hieroglyphic writing; Meroitic was a late derivation from demotic. Use of hieroglyphic writing arises from proto-literate symbol systems in the Early Bronze Age , around the 32nd century BC ( Naqada III ), with the first decipherable sentence written in the Egyptian language dating to the Second Dynasty (28th century BC). Egyptian hieroglyphs developed into a mature writing system used for monumental inscription in the classical language of the Middle Kingdom period; during this period, the system made use of about 900 distinct signs
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Decipherment
In philology , DECIPHERMENT is the discovery of the meaning of texts written in ancient or obscure languages or scripts. Decipherment in cryptography refers to decryption . The term is used sardonically in everyday language to describe attempts to read poor handwriting. In genetics , decipherment is the successful attempt to understand DNA
DNA
, which is viewed metaphorically as a text containing word-like units. Throughout science the term decipherment is synonymous with the understanding of biological and chemical phenomena. CONTENTS * 1 Ancient languages * 2 Decipherers * 3 See also * 3.1 Deciphered scripts * 3.2 Undeciphered scripts * 3.3 Undeciphered texts * 4 References ANCIENT LANGUAGESIn many cases, a multilingual artifact is necessary to facilitate decipherment, the Rosetta Stone
Rosetta Stone
being the classic example
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Lead
LEAD is a chemical element with symbol PB (from the Latin
Latin
plumbum) and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metal with a density exceeding that of most common materials; it is soft, malleable , and melts at a relatively low temperature. When freshly cut, it has a bluish-white tint; it tarnishes to a dull gray upon exposure to air. Lead
Lead
has the second-highest atomic number of the classically stable elements and lies at the end of three major decay chains of heavier elements. Lead
Lead
is a relatively unreactive post-transition metal . Its weak metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature (lead and lead oxides react with both acids and bases) and tendency to form covalent bonds . Compounds of lead are usually found in the +2 oxidation state, rather than the +4 common with lighter members of the carbon group
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Persia
IRAN (/ɪˈrɑːn/ ( listen ), also /ɪˈræn/ ; Persian : ایران‎‎ Irān ( listen )), also known as PERSIA (/ˈpɜːrʒə/ ), officially the ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN (Persian : جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎‎ Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān ( listen )), is a sovereign state in Western Asia
Western Asia

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Diodorus Siculus
DIODORUS SICULUS (/ˌdaɪəˈdɔːrəs ˈsɪkjʊləs/ ; Greek : Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (fl. 1st century BC) or DIODORUS OF SICILY was a Greek historian . He is known for writing the monumental universal history Bibliotheca historica , much of which survives, between 60 and 30 BC. It is arranged in three parts. The first covers mythic history up to the destruction of Troy
Troy
, arranged geographically, describing regions around the world from Egypt, India
India
and Arabia to Greece
Greece
and Europe. The second covers the Trojan War to the death of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
. The third covers the period to about 60 BC. Bibliotheca, meaning 'library', acknowledges that he was drawing on the work of many other authors
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Farhad
FARHAD (Persian : فرهاد‎‎), from Middle Persian
Middle Persian
Farhād), has been a Persian name for men a few centuries before Islam, first recorded for Ashkani kings circa 170 BC
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Shirin
SHIRIN (? – 628 AD) (Persian : شيرين‎‎) was a wife of the Sassanid Persian Shahanshah (king of kings), Khosrow Parviz . In the revolution after the death of Khosrow's father Hormizd IV , the General Bahram Chobin took power over the Persian empire. Shirin
Shirin
fled with Khosrow to Syria
Syria
, where they lived under the protection of Byzantine emperor Maurice . In 591, Khosrow returned to Persia
Persia
to take control of the empire and Shirin
Shirin
was made queen. She used her new influence to support the Christian
Christian
minority in Iran
Iran
, but the political situation demanded that she do so discreetly
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Herakles
HERACLES (/ˈhɛrəkliːz/ HERR-ə-kleez ; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Ἡρακλῆς, Hēraklēs, from Hēra, " Hera
Hera
"), born ALCAEUS (Ἀλκαῖος, Alkaios) or ALCIDES (Ἀλκείδης, Alkeidēs), was a divine hero in Greek mythology
Greek mythology
, the son of Zeus
Zeus
and Alcmene , foster son of Amphitryon and great-grandson and half-brother (as they are both sired by the god Zeus
Zeus
) of Perseus
Perseus
. He was the greatest of the Greek heroes, a paragon of masculinity, the ancestor of royal clans who claimed to be Heracleidae (Ἡρακλεῖδαι), and a champion of the Olympian order against chthonic monsters
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