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Behavior Therapy
Behaviour therapy is a broad term referring to clinical psychotherapy that uses techniques derived from behaviourism. Those who practice behaviour therapy tend to look at specific, learned behaviours and how the environment influences those behaviours. Those who practice behaviour therapy are called behaviourists, or behaviour analysts.[1] They tend to look for treatment outcomes that are objectively measurable.[2] Behaviour therapy does not involve one specific method but it has a wide range of techniques that can be used to treat a person's psychological problems.[3] Applied behaviour analysis
Applied behaviour analysis
(ABA) is the application of behaviour analysis that focuses on assessing how environmental variables influence learning principles, particularly respondent and operant conditioning, to identify potential behaviour-change procedures, which are frequently used throughout clinical therapy
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Obsessive-compulsive Disorder
Obsessive–compulsive disorder
Obsessive–compulsive disorder
(OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").[1] People are unable to control either the thoughts or the activities for more than a short period of time.[1] Common activities include hand washing, counting of things, and checking to see if a door is locked.[1] Some may have difficulty throwing things out.[1] These activities occur to such a degree that the person's daily life is negatively affected.[1] This
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Punishment (psychology)
In operant conditioning, punishment is any change in a human or animal's surroundings that occurs after a given behavior or response which reduces the likelihood of that behavior occurring again in the future. As with reinforcement, it is the behavior, not the animal, that is punished. Whether a change is or is not punishing is determined by its effect on the rate that the behavior occurs, not by any "hostile" or aversive features of the change
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Medical Subject Headings
Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it serves as a thesaurus that facilitates searching. Created and updated by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), it is used by the MEDLINE/ PubMed
PubMed
article database and by NLM's catalog of book holdings. MeSH is also used by ClinicalTrials.gov
ClinicalTrials.gov
registry to classify which diseases are studied by trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. MeSH was introduced in 1960, with the NLM's own index catalogue and the subject headings of the Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicus (1940 edition) as precursors. The yearly printed version of MeSH was discontinued in 2007 and MeSH is now available online only.[2] It can be browsed and downloaded free of charge through PubMed
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Stoicism
Stoicism
Stoicism
is a school of Hellenistic philosophy
Hellenistic philosophy
that flourished throughout the Roman and Greek world until the 3rd century AD. Zeno of Citium founded stoicism in Athens
Athens
in the early 3rd century BC. It was heavily influenced by certain teachings of Socrates, while stoic physics are largely drawn from the teachings of the philosopher Heraclitus
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Harry C. Solomon
Harry C. Solomon (1889–1982), an American neurologist, psychiatrist, researcher, administrator, and clinician, was among the first to advocate for major changes in public psychiatry. He called for the closure of large, public mental hospitals and replaced with community-based facilities. Early life[edit] Solomon was born in Hastings, Nebraska. His family moved to Los Angeles, California where he received his early education. He earned his B.S. degree at the University of California, Berkeley in 1910, and his medical degree from Harvard Medical School in 1914. His entered the field of neurology and psychiatry during his second year at Harvard while studying at the State Lunatic Hospital at Danvers, Massachusetts. The Boston Psychopathic Hospital opened in 1912 as a division of the Boston State Hospital. Solomon took his internship and his residency there, then hired as a staff physician. Dr. Elmer E
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Operant
Operant conditioning (also called "instrumental conditioning") is a learning process through which the strength of a behavior is modified by reinforcement or punishment. It is also a procedure that is used to bring about such learning. Although operant and classical conditioning both involve behaviors controlled by environmental stimuli, they differ in nature. In operant conditioning, stimuli present when a behavior is rewarded or punished come to control that behavior. For example, a child may learn to open a box to get the candy inside, or learn to avoid touching a hot stove; in operant terms, the box and the stove are "discriminative stimuli". However, in classical conditioning, stimuli that signal significant events produce reflexive behavior. For example, sight of candy may cause a child to salivate, or the sound of a door slam may signal an angry parent, causing a child to tremble
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Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is a standardized psychometric test of adult personality and psychopathology.[1] Psychologists and other mental health professionals use various versions of the MMPI to help develop treatment plans; assist with differential diagnosis; help answer legal questions (forensic psychology); screen job candidates during the personnel selection process; or as part of a therapeutic assessment procedure.[2] The original MMPI was developed by Starke R. Hathaway and J. C. McKinley, faculty of the University of Minnesota, and first published by the University of Minnesota Press in 1943.[3] It was replaced by an updated version, the MMPI-2, in 1989. A version for adolescents, the MMPI-A, was published in 1992
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Flooding
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry.[1] The European Union
European Union
(EU) Floods Directive defines a flood as a covering by water of land not normally covered by water.[2] In the sense of "flowing water", the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide. Floods are an area of study of the discipline hydrology and are of significant concern in agriculture, civil engineering and public health. Flooding may occur as an overflow of water from water bodies, such as a river, lake, or ocean, in which the water overtops or breaks levees, resulting in some of that water escaping its usual boundaries,[3] or it may occur due to an accumulation of rainwater on saturated ground in an areal flood
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Exposure And Response Prevention
Exposure and response prevention (ERP or EX/RP) is a method of cognitive behavioral therapy and form of exposure therapy in which individuals confront their fears and discontinue their escape response.[1] The American Psychiatric Association recommends ERP for the treatment of OCD, citing that ERP has the richest empirical support.[2] References[edit]^ Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Deacon, Brett J.; Whiteside, Stephen P. H. (2011-03-14). Exposure Therapy for Anxiety: Principles and Practice. Guilford Press. ISBN 9781609180171.  ^ Koran, LM; Hanna, GL; Hollander, E; Nestadt, G; Simpson, HB; American Psychiatric, Association. (July 2007). "Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder" (PDF). The American Journal of Psychiatry. 164 (7 Suppl): 5–53. PMID 17849776. This psychology-related article is a stub
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Functional Analysis
Functional analysis
Functional analysis
is a branch of mathematical analysis, the core of which is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit-related structure (e.g. inner product, norm, topology, etc.) and the linear functions defined on these spaces and respecting these structures in a suitable sense. The historical roots of functional analysis lie in the study of spaces of functions and the formulation of properties of transformations of functions such as the Fourier transform as transformations defining continuous, unitary etc. operators between function spaces. This point of view turned out to be particularly useful for the study of differential and integral equations. The usage of the word functional as a noun goes back to the calculus of variations, implying a function whose argument is a function. The term was first used in Hadamard's 1910 book on that subject
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Habituation
Habituation is a form of learning in which an organism decreases or ceases its responses to a stimulus after repeated or prolonged presentations.[1] Essentially, the organism learns to stop responding to a stimulus which is no longer biologically relevant. For example, organisms may habituate to repeated sudden loud noises when they learn these have no consequences.[2] Habituation usually refers to a reduction in innate behaviours, rather than behaviours acquired during conditioning (in which case the process is termed "extinction")
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Counterconditioning
Counterconditioning (also called stimulus substitution) is functional analytic principle that is part of behavior analysis, and involves the conditioning of an unwanted behavior or response to a stimulus into a wanted behavior or response by the association of positive actions with the stimulus.[1] For example, when training a dog, a person would create a positive response by petting or calming the dog when the dog reacts anxiously or nervously to a stimulus. Therefore, this will associate the positive response with the stimulus.[2]Contents1 Founders 2 Versus extinction 3 Common treatment uses 4 Annotated bibliography 5 ReferencesFounders[edit] Mary Cover Jones was the first to show the effectiveness of the counter conditioning process in her rabbit experiments. She was able to eliminate the fear of rabbits from a young boy. The rabbit was first kept away from the boy and then moved closer and closer, while the boy was able to eat his favorite foods
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Edward Thorndike
Edward Lee Thorndike (August 31, 1874 – August 9, 1949) was an American psychologist who spent nearly his entire career at Teachers College, Columbia University. His work on Comparative psychology
Comparative psychology
and the learning process led to the theory of connectionism and helped lay the scientific foundation for educational psychology. He also worked on solving industrial problems, such as employee exams and testing
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Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive psychology
Cognitive psychology
is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking".[1] Much of the work derived from cognitive psychology has been integrated into various other modern disciplines of psychological study, including educational psychology, social psychology, personality psychology, abnormal psychology, developmental psychology, and economics.Contents1 History 2 Mental processes2.1 Attention 2.2 Memory2.2.1 Working memory 2.2.2 Long-term memory2.3 Perception 2.4 Language 2.5 Metacognition3 Modern 4 Applications4.1 Abnormal psychology 4.2 Social psychology 4.3 Developmental psychology 4.4 Educational psychology 4.5 Personality psychology5 Cognitive psychology
Cognitive psychology
vs
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Hans Eysenck
Hans Jürgen Eysenck, PhD, DSc (/ˈaɪzɛŋk/; 4 March 1916 – 4 September 1997) was a German-born English psychologist who spent his professional career in Great Britain
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