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Bava Metzia
Bava Metzia (Talmudic Aramaic: בבא מציעא, "The Middle Gate") is the second of the first three Talmudic tractates in the order of Nezikin ("Damages"), the other two being Bava Kamma and Bava Batra. Originally all three formed a single tractate called Nezikin (torts or injuries), each Bava being a Part or subdivision. Bava Metzia discusses civil matters such as property law and usury. It also examines one's obligations to guard lost property that have been found, or property explicitly entrusted to him. Bava Metzia contains 119 pages divided into ten chapters.Contents1 Honorary trustee (" Shomer Ḥinnam" chaps. i–v) 2 Sale and Trust (chap. iv) 3 A paid trustee (" Shomer Sakhar", chaps. vi–vii) 4 Borrower ("Shoel", chap. viii.1–3) 5 Hirer ("Sokher", chap
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Rashi
Shlomo Yitzchaki (Hebrew: רבי שלמה יצחקי‬‎; Latin: Salomon Isaacides; French: Salomon de Troyes, 22 February 1040 – 13 July 1105), today generally known by the acronym Rashi
Rashi
(Hebrew: רש"י‬, RAbbi SHlomo Itzhaki), was a medieval French rabbi and author of a comprehensive commentary on the Talmud
Talmud
and commentary on the Tanakh. Acclaimed for his ability to present the basic meaning of the text in a concise and lucid fashion, Rashi
Rashi
appeals to both learned scholars and beginner students, and his works remain a centerpiece of contemporary Jewish study
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Fine (penalty)
A fine or mulct is money that a court of law or other authority decides has to be paid as punishment for a crime or other offence. The amount of a fine can be determined case by case, but it is often announced in advance.[1]A warning sign in Singapore that states the fine for releasing vehicles that are immobilized with wheel clamps by Singapore Police Force officers.The most usual use of the term is for financial punishments for the commission of crimes, especially minor crimes, or as the settlement of a claim. A synonym, typically used in civil law actions, is mulct. One common example of a fine is money paid for violations of traffic laws. Currently in English common law, relatively small fines are used either in place of or alongside community service orders for low-level criminal offences
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Passover
Passover
Passover
or Pesach (/ˈpɛsɑːx, ˈpeɪsɑːx/;[4] from Hebrew פֶּסַח‬ Pesah, Pesakh) is a major, biblically derived Jewish holiday. Jews
Jews
celebrate Passover
Passover
as a commemoration of their liberation by God from slavery in ancient Egypt and their freedom as a nation under the leadership of Moses
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Sukkot
Sukkot
Sukkot
(Hebrew: סוכות‎ or סֻכּוֹת, sukkōt, commonly translated as Feast of Tabernacles or Feast of the Ingathering, traditional Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
pronunciation Sukkos or Succos, literally Feast of Booths) is a biblical Jewish holiday
Jewish holiday
celebrated on the 15th day of the seventh month, Tishrei
Tishrei
(varies from late September to late October). During the existence of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Temple, it was one of the Three Pilgrimage Festivals (Hebrew: שלוש רגלים‎, shalosh regalim) on which the Israelites
Israelites
were commanded to perform a pilgrimage to the Temple. Sukkot
Sukkot
has a double significance
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Leap Year
A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year containing one additional day (or, in the case of lunisolar calendars, a month) added to keep the calendar year synchronized with the astronomical or seasonal year.[1] Because seasons and astronomical events do not repeat in a whole number of days, calendars that have the same number of days in each year drift over time with respect to the event that the year is supposed to track. By inserting (also called intercalating) an additional day or month into the year, the drift can be corrected. A year that is not a leap year is called a common year. For example, in the Gregorian calendar, each leap year has 366 days instead of the usual 365, by extending February to 29 days rather than the common 28
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Landlord
A landlord is the owner of a house, apartment, condominium, land or real estate which is rented or leased to an individual or business, who is called a tenant (also a lessee or renter). When a juristic person is in this position, the term landlord is used. Other terms include lessor and owner
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Immovable Property
Immovable property is an immovable object, an item of property that cannot be moved without destroying or altering it – property that is fixed to the earth, such as land or a house. Immovable property includes premises, property rights (for example, inheritable building right), houses, land and associated goods, and chattels if they are located on, or below, or have a fixed address
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Artisan
An artisan (from French: artisan, Italian: artigiano) is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates things by hand that may be functional or strictly decorative, for example furniture, decorative arts, sculptures, clothing, jewellery, food items, household items and tools or even mechanisms such as the handmade clockwork movement of a watchmaker. Artisans practice a craft and may through experience and aptitude reach the expressive levels of an artist. The adjective "artisanal" is sometimes used in describing hand-processing in what is usually viewed as an industrial process, such as in the phrase artisanal mining. Thus, "artisanal" is sometimes used in marketing and advertising as a buzz word to describe or imply some relation with the crafting of handmade food products, such as bread, beverages or cheese
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Title (property)
In property law, a title is a bundle of rights in a piece of property in which a party may own either a legal interest or equitable interest. The rights in the bundle may be separated and held by different parties. It may also refer to a formal document, such as a deed, that serves as evidence of ownership. Conveyance of the document may be required in order to transfer ownership in the property to another person. Title is distinct from possession, a right that often accompanies ownership but is not necessarily sufficient to prove it. In many cases, both possession and title may be transferred independently of each other
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Negligence
Negligence
Negligence
(Lat. negligentia)[1] is a failure to exercise the appropriate and or ethical ruled care expected to be exercised amongst specified circumstances.[2] The area of tort law known as negligence involves harm caused by failing to act as a form of carelessness possibly with extenuating circumstances. The core concept of negligence is that people should exercise reasonable care in their actions, by taking account of the potential harm that they might foreseeably cause to other people or property.[3] Someone who suffers loss caused by another's negligence may be able to sue for damages to compensate for their harm. Such loss may include physical injury, harm to property, psychiatric illness, or economic loss
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Gemara
—— Tannaitic ——Mishnah Tosefta—— Amoraic (Gemara) ——Jerusalem Talmud Babylonian Talmud—— Later ——Minor TractatesHalakhic Midrash—— Exodus ——Mekhilta of Rabbi Ishmael Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
bar Yohai—— Leviticus —— Sifra
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Plaintiff
A plaintiff (Π in legal shorthand) is the party who initiates a lawsuit (also known as an action) before a court. By doing so, the plaintiff seeks a legal remedy, and if successful, the court will issue judgment in favor of the plaintiff and make the appropriate court order (e.g., an order for damages). "Plaintiff" is the term used in civil cases in most English-speaking jurisdictions, the notable exception being England and Wales, where a plaintiff has, since the introduction of the Civil Procedure Rules in 1999, been known as a "claimant", but that term also has other meanings. In criminal cases, the prosecutor brings the case against the defendant, but the key complaining party is often called the "complainant". In some jurisdictions the commencement of a lawsuit is done by filing a summons, claim form or a complaint. These documents are known as pleadings, that set forth the alleged wrongs committed by the defendant or defendants with a demand for relief
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Babylonia
Babylonia
Babylonia
(/ˌbæbəˈloʊniə, -ˈloʊnjə/) was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(present-day Iraq). A small Amorite-ruled state emerged in 1894 BC, which contained the minor administrative town of Babylon.[1] It was merely a small provincial town during the Akkadian
Akkadian
Empire (2335–2154 BC) but greatly expanded during the reign of Hammurabi
Hammurabi
in the first half of the 18th century BC and became a major capital city. During the reign of Hammurabi
Hammurabi
and afterwards, Babylonia
Babylonia
was called "the country of Akkad" (Māt Akkadī in Akkadian).[2][3] It was often involved in rivalry with the older state of Assyria
Assyria
to the north and Elam
Elam
to the east in Ancient Iran
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Usury
Usury
Usury
(/ˈjuːʒəri/[1][2]) is, as defined today, the practice of making unethical or immoral monetary loans that unfairly enrich the lender. Originally, usury meant interest of any kind. A loan may be considered usurious because of excessive or abusive interest rates or other factors. Historically, in some Christian
Christian
societies, and in many Islamic societies even today, charging any interest at all would be considered usury. Someone who practices usury can be called a usurer, but a more common term in contemporary English is loan shark. The term may be used in a moral sense—condemning, taking advantage of others' misfortunes—or in a legal sense where interest rates may be regulated by law
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Property Law
Property
Property
law is the area of law that governs the various forms of ownership and tenancy in real property (land as distinct from personal or movable possessions) and in personal property, within the common law legal system. In the civil law system, there is a division between movable and immovable property. Movable property roughly corresponds to personal property, while immovable property corresponds to real estate or real property, and the associated rights, and obligations thereon. The concept, idea or philosophy of property underlies all property law
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