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Battle Of The Arar
The Battle of the Arar
Battle of the Arar
was fought between the migrating tribes of the Helvetii, and four Roman legions
Roman legions
(Legions VII, VIII, IX Hispana and X Equestris), under the command of Gaius Julius Caesar, in 58 BC. This was the first major battle of the Gallic Wars. The Helvetii
Helvetii
were a tribe that originated from what is now Switzerland. Just prior to the battle with Caesar, they had commenced on a mass migration through Roman Gaul
Gaul
towards the Atlantic coast.[2] At Geneva, the Romans destroyed the wooden bridge across the Rhone
Rhone
and constructed 19 mi of fortifications. The Helvetii
Helvetii
tribe tried to migrate by another route, and were crossing the river Arar (Saône) using rafts and boats. Caesar was informed by his scouts and proceeded to engage the Helvetii
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Gallic Wars
300,000+ fighting men (mainly irregulars)Casualties and losses30,000+ killed, 10,000+ woundedAbout 1,000,000 according to Caesar which mainly includes civilians killed. Modern estimates are significantly lower, but still in several hundreds of thousandsv t eGallic WarsMagetobriga (63 BC) Arar (58 BC) Bibracte
Bibracte
(58 BC) Vosges (58 BC) Axona (57 BC) Sabis (57 BC) Atuatuci (57 BC) Octodurus (57–56 BC) Ambiorix's revolt
Ambiorix's revolt
(54–53 BC) Avaricum
Avaricum
(52 BC) Gergovia
Gergovia
(52 BC) Lutetia (52 BC) Alesia (52 BC) Uxellodunum (51 BC)The Gallic Wars
Gallic Wars
were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
against several Gallic tribes
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Names Of The Celts
The various names used since classical times for the people known today as the Celts
Celts
are of disparate origins. The name Κελτοί Keltoi and Celtae is used in Greek and Latin, respectively, as the name of a people of the La Tène horizon in the region of the upper Rhine
Rhine
and Danube
Danube
during the 6th to 1st centuries BC in Greco-Roman ethnography. The etymology of this name and that of the Gauls
Gauls
Γαλάται Galatai / Galli is of uncertain etymology. The name of the Welsh, on the other hand, is taken from the designator used by the Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
for Celtic- and Latin-speaking peoples, *Walhaz, meaning "foreign". The linguistic sense of the name Celts, grouping all speakers of Celtic languages, is modern
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Fortifications
Fortifications are military constructions, or buildings, designed for the defense of territories in warfare and also used to solidify rule in a region during peace time. For many thousands of years, humans have constructed defensive works in a variety of increasingly complex designs. The term is derived from the Latin
Latin
fortis ("strong") and facere ("to make"). From very early history to modern times, walls have often been necessary for cities to survive in an ever-changing world of invasion and conquest. Some settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
were the first small cities to be fortified. In ancient Greece, large stone walls had been built in Mycenaean Greece, such as the ancient site of Mycenae
Mycenae
(famous for the huge stone blocks of its 'cyclopean' walls)
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Human Migration
Human migration
Human migration
is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location. The movement is often over long distances and from one country to another, but internal migration is also possible; indeed, this is the dominant form globally. People may migrate as individuals, in family units or in large groups.[1] A person who moves from their home to another place because of natural disaster or civil disturbance may be described as a refugee or, especially within the same country, a displaced person. A person seeking refuge from political, religious or other forms of persecution is usually described as an asylum seeker. Nomadic movements are normally not regarded as migrations as there is no intention to settle in the new place and because the movement is generally seasonal. Only a few nomadic people have retained this form of lifestyle in modern times
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Saône
The Saône
Saône
(French: La Saône
Saône
French pronunciation: ​[son];[1] Arpitan
Arpitan
Sona, Latin: Arar) is a river of eastern France. It is a right tributary of the Rhône, rising at Vioménil
Vioménil
in the Vosges
Vosges
department and joining the Rhône
Rhône
in Lyon, just south of the Presqu'île. The name "Saône" derives from that of the Gallic river goddess Souconna, which has also been connected with a local Celtic tribe, the Sequanes. Monastic copyists progressively transformed "Souconna" to "Saoconna", which ultimately gave rise to "Saône"
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Tigurini
The Tigurini were a clan or tribe forming one out of four pagi (provinces) of the Helvetii.[1][2] The Tigurini were the most important group of the Helvetii, mentioned by both Caesar and Poseidonius, settling in the area of what is now the Swiss canton of Vaud, corresponding to the bearers of the late La Tène culture in western Switzerland. Their name has a meaning of "lords, rulers" (cognate with Irish tigern "lord"). The other Helvetian tribes included the Verbigeni and the Tougeni (sometimes identified with the Teutones), besides one tribe that has remained unnamed. The name of the Tigurini is first recorded in the context of their alliance with the Cimbri in the Cimbrian War of 113–101 BCE
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Lucius Cassius Longinus (consul 107 BC)
Longinus
Longinus
/ˌlɒnˈdʒaɪnəs/ is the name given in Christian mythology[1] to the unnamed Roman soldier who pierced Jesus
Jesus
in his side with a lance and who in medieval and some modern Christian traditions is described as a convert to Christianity.[2] The lance is called in Christianity the "Holy Lance" (lancea and his story is related
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Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus (consul 58 BC)
Titus Calpurnius was a Roman bucolic poet. Eleven eclogues have been handed down to us under his name, of which the last four, from metrical considerations and express manuscript testimony, are now generally attributed to Nemesianus, who lived in the time of the emperor Carus
Carus
and his sons (latter half of the 3rd century).The separate authorship of the eclogues of Calpurnius and Nemesianus was established by Haupt.Contents1 Controversy over date 2 Life 3 The Eclogues 4 Laus Pisonis and Einsiedlen Eclogues 5 Further reading 6 ReferencesControversy over date[edit] There is no doubt that Calpurnius’ Eclogues
Eclogues
post-date Virgil’s Eclogues, as Calpurnius is heavily indebted, and frequently alludes to Virgil. However, the period in which Calpurnius was active has been debated and there is no overriding consensus
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Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg
(PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks".[2] It was founded in 1971 by Michael S. Hart
Michael S. Hart
and is the oldest digital library.[3] Most of the items in its collection are the full texts of public domain books. The project tries to make these as free as possible, in long-lasting, open formats that can be used on almost any computer. As of 23 March 2018[update], Project Gutenberg reached 56,750 items in its collection of free eBooks.[4] The releases are available in plain text but, wherever possible, other formats are included, such as HTML, PDF, EPUB, MOBI, and Plucker. Most releases are in the English language, but many non-English works are also available. There are multiple affiliated projects that are providing additional content, including regional and language-specific works
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Celts
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle Dnieper Bronze
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Celtic Studies
Celtic studies
Celtic studies
or Celtology is the academic discipline occupied with the study of any sort of cultural output relating to the Celtic people
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List Of Celtic Tribes
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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Gaels
The Gaels
Gaels
(Irish pronunciation: [ɡeːlˠ], Scottish Gaelic pronunciation: [kɛː.əlˠ]; Irish: Na Gaeil, Scottish Gaelic: Na Gàidheil, Manx: Ny Gaeil) are an ethnolinguistic group native to northwestern Europe.[a] They are associated with the Gaelic languages: a branch of the Celtic languages
Celtic languages
comprising Irish, Manx and Scottish Gaelic. Historically, the ethnonyms Irish and Scots referred to the Gaels
Gaels
in general, but the scope of those nationalities is today more complex. Gaelic language
Gaelic language
and culture originated in Ireland, extending to Dál Riata in western Scotland. In antiquity the Gaels
Gaels
traded with the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and also raided Roman Britain. In the Middle Ages, Gaelic culture became dominant throughout the rest of Scotland
Scotland
and the Isle of Man
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Geneva
Geneva
Geneva
(/dʒɪˈniːvə/, French: Genève [ʒənɛv], Arpitan: Genèva [dzəˈnɛva], German: Genf [ɡɛnf], Italian: Ginevra [dʒiˈneːvra], Romansh: Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland
Switzerland
(after Zürich) and is the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland
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Celtic Britons
The Britons, also known as Celtic Britons
Celtic Britons
or Ancient Britons, were Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain
Great Britain
from the British Iron Age into the Middle Ages, at which point their culture and language diverged into the modern Welsh, Cornish and Bretons
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