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Battle Of Wadi Al-Laban
The Battle of Wadi al-Laban, also Battle of Oued el Leben, occurred in March–April 1558 between Morocco
Morocco
and Ottoman forces under Hasan Pasha, the son of Hayreddin Barbarossa. The battle was rather inconclusive, and occurred north of Fes, at Wadi al-Laban ("The riverbed of milk" or "The riverbed of yoghurt"[4]), an affluent of the Sebou River, one day north of Fes.[2][3] The conflict was initiated when the Moroccan ruler Mohammed ash-Sheikh refused to give allegiance to the Ottomans.[2] The Moroccan ruler had formed an alliance with the Spanish against the Ottomans.[2] Hasan Pasha, the son of Barbarossa, was named by the Ottoman Empire beylerbey of the Regency of Algiers
Regency of Algiers
in June 1557, in order to continue the fight against the Moroccan ruler
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Morocco
Coordinates: 32°N 6°W / 32°N 6°W / 32; -6Kingdom of Moroccoالمملكة المغربية (Arabic) ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ (Berber)FlagCoat of armsMotto:  لله، الوطن، الملك  (Arabic) Allah, Al Watan, Al Malik ⴰⴽⵓⵛ, ⴰⵎⵓⵔ, ⴰⴳⵍⵍⵉⴷ (Berber)"God, Homeland, King"Anthem:  النشيد الوطني المغربي  (Arabic) ⵉⵣⵍⵉ ⴰⵏⴰⵎⵓⵔ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ  (Berber) Cherifian AnthemDark green: Internationally recognized territory of Morocco. Lighter green: Western Sahara, a territory claimed and mostly controlled by Morocco
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Habsburg Spain
Habsburg
Habsburg
Spain
Spain
refers to the history of Spain
Spain
over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516–1700), when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg
Habsburg
(also associated with its role in the history of Central Europe). The Habsburg
Habsburg
rulers (chiefly Charles I and Philip II) reached the zenith of their influence and power. They controlled territory that included the Americas, the East Indies, the Low Countries and territories now in France
France
and Germany
Germany
in Europe, the Portuguese Empire from 1580 to 1640, and various other territories such as small enclaves like Ceuta
Ceuta
and Oran
Oran
in North Africa
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Saadi Dynasty
The Saadi dynasty
Saadi dynasty
or Saadian dynasty (Arabic: السعديون‎ as-saʿadiūn; Berber languages: ⵉⵙⵄⴷⵉⵢⵏ Isɛdiyen) was an arab[2] Moroccan dynasty, which ruled Morocco
Morocco
from 1549 to 1659. From 1509 to 1549 they had ruled only in the south of Morocco. While still recognizing the Wattasids
Wattasids
as Sultans until 1528, Saadian's growing power led the Wattasids
Wattasids
to attack them and, after an indecisive battle, to recognize their rule over southern Morocco[3] through the Treaty of Tadla. Their reign over Morocco
Morocco
began with the reign of Sultan
Sultan
Mohammed ash-Sheikh in 1554, when he vanquished the last Wattasids
Wattasids
at the Battle of Tadla
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Rise Of The Ottoman Empire
The foundation and rise of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
is a period of history that started with the emergence of the Ottoman principality in c. 1299, and ended with the conquest of Constantinople
Constantinople
on May 29, 1453. This period witnessed the foundation of a political entity ruled by the Ottoman Dynasty
Ottoman Dynasty
in the northwestern Anatolian region of Bithynia, and its transformation from a small principality on the Byzantine
Byzantine
frontier into an empire spanning the Balkans
Balkans
and Anatolia. For this reason, this period in the empire's history has been described as the Proto-Imperial Era.[1] Throughout most of this period, the Ottomans were merely one of many competing states in the region, and relied upon the support of local warlords and vassals to maintain control over their realm
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List Of Battles Involving The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman
Ottoman
may refer to: Ottoman
Ottoman
Empire, in existence from 1299 to 1923
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Fall Of Constantinople
Ottomans Land forces: [e] 50,000–80,000[6]:101 [7]:49[8]:52[9]:618[10][page needed][11][page needed][f]100,000[12]:755–160,000[13][page needed][14][page needed]–200,000[3][page needed]70 cannons[15]:139–14014 large and 56 small caliber)[16]:179Naval forces:70 ships,[10]:4420 galleys[17] 90 – 126 ships [18]Byzantines Land forces:7,000–10,000[5]:85[12]:755[19]:343[12]:755[20]:46[21][page needed]-12,000,[18] 600 Ottoman defectors[22]Naval forces:26 ships[10]:45[g]Casualties and lossesUnknown but heavy[24][4][page needed]4,000 killed in total (including combatants and civilians)[10]:37–8 30,000 enslaved or deported[24]^ More specifically, the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
under the Palaiologos dynasty ^ The Venetians decided to make a peace treaty with the Ottomans in September 1451, because they were on good terms already with the Ottomans and they did not want to ruin a relationship
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Beylerbey
Beylerbey
Beylerbey
or Beylerbeyi
Beylerbeyi
(Ottoman Turkish: بكلربكی‎; " Bey of Beys", meaning "the Commander of Commanders" or "the Lord of Lords"; originally Beglerbeg[i] in older Turkic) was a high rank in the western Islamic world in the late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and early modern period, from the Seljuks of Rum
Seljuks of Rum
and the Ilkhanids
Ilkhanids
to Safavid Persia
Safavid Persia
and the Ottoman Empire. Initially designating a commander-in-chief, it eventually came to be held by senior provincial governors. In Ottoman usage, where the rank survived the longest, it designated the governors-general of some of the largest and most important provinces, although in later centuries it became devalued into a mere honorific title
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Melilla
Melilla
Melilla
(/məˈliːjə/ mə-LEE-yə; Spanish: [meˈliʎa], locally [meˈliʝa]; Arabic: مليلية‎, Maliliyyah; Berber languages: ⵎⵔⵉⵜⵙ, Mřič) is a Spanish autonomous city located on the north coast of Africa, sharing a border with Morocco, with an area of 12.3 km2 (4.7 sq mi). Melilla, along with Ceuta, is one of two permanently inhabited Spanish cities in mainland Africa. It was part of the Province of Málaga
Province of Málaga
until 14 March 1995, when the city's Statute of Autonomy was passed. Melilla, like Ceuta, was a free port before Spain
Spain
joined the European Union.[citation needed] In 2011 it had a population of 78,476, made up of Catholics of Iberian origin (primarily from Andalusia
Andalusia
and Catalonia), ethnic Riffian Berbers
Berbers
and a small number of Sephardic Jews and Sindhi Hindus
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Mohammed Ash-Sheikh
Mawlay Mohammed ash-Sheikh
Mohammed ash-Sheikh
ash Sharif al-Hassani al-Drawi at-Tagmaderti (1490/1491 – 23 October 1557) was the first sultan of the Saadi dynasty
Saadi dynasty
ruling over Morocco
Morocco
(1544–57). "Al-Drawi at-Tagmadert" means: the man from the Draa
Draa
river valley, from Tagmadert. He was particularly successful in expelling the Portuguese from most of their bases in Morocco. He also eliminated the Wattasids and resisted the Ottomans, thereby establishing a complete rule over Morocco.Contents1 War against the Portuguese 2 War against the Wattasids
Wattasids
and Ottomans 3 Death 4 NotesWar against the Portuguese[edit] After the death of his father Abu Abdallah al-Qaim in 1517, Mohammed ash-Sheikh (together with his brother Ahmad al-Araj) took command of the war of the Saadi against the Portuguese
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Classical Age Of The Ottoman Empire
The Classical Age of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(Turkish: Klasik Çağ) concerns the history of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
from the Conquest of Constantinople in 1453 until the second half of the sixteenth century, roughly the end of the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent
(r. 1520-1566). During this period a system of patrimonial rule based on the absolute authority of the sultan reached its apex, and the empire developed the institutional foundations which it would maintain, in modified form, for several centuries.[1] The territory of the Ottoman Empire greatly expanded, and led to what some historians have called the Pax Ottomana
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Spain
Coordinates: 40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4Kingdom of Spain Reino de España  (Spanish)6 other official names[a][b]Aragonese: Reino d'EspanyaAsturian: Reinu d'EspañaBasque: Espainiako ErresumaCatalan: Regne d'EspanyaGalician: Reino de EspañaOccitan: Reiaume d'EspanhaFlagCoat of armsMotto: "Plus Ultra" (Latin) "Further Beyond"Anthem: "Marcha Real" (Spanish)[2] "Royal March"Location of  Spain  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Capital and largest city Madrid 40°26′N 3°42′W / 40.433°N 3.700°W / 40.433; -3.700Official language and national language Spanish[c]Co-official languages in certain autonomous communities Catalan Galician Basque OccitanEthnic groups (2015)89.9% Spanish 10.1% othersReligi
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Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire (/ˈɒtəmən/; Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye[dn 5]), also historically known in Western Europe
Europe
as the Turkish Empire[8] or simply Turkey,[9] was a state that controlled much of southeastern Europe, western Asia and northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia
Anatolia
in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman.[10] After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire
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Sebou River
Sebou (Berber: Asif n Sbu, Arabic: سبو‎) is a river in northern Morocco. At its source in the Middle Atlas
Middle Atlas
mountains it is known as the Guigou River
River
(Berber: Asif n Gigu).[1] The river is 496 kilometers long and has an average water flow of 137 m3/s, which makes it the largest North African river by volume. It passes near the city of Fes and discharges to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
in Mehdia. Sebou is navigable for only 16 km as far as the city of Kenitra, which has the only river port in Morocco. Its most important tributaries are the Ouergha River, Baht River
River
and Inaouen River. The river supports irrigation in Morocco's most fertile region: the Gharb
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