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Battle Of Tangdao
The Battle of Tangdao
Battle of Tangdao
(唐岛之战) was a naval engagement that took place in 1161 between the Jurchen Jin and the Southern Song Dynasty
Southern Song Dynasty
of China
China
on the East China
China
Sea. The conflict was part of the Jin-Song wars, and was fought near Tangdao Island. It was an attempt by the Jin to invade and conquer the Southern Song Dynasty, yet resulted in failure and defeat for the Jurchens. The Jin Dynasty navy was set on fire by firearms and Fire Arrows, suffering heavy losses.[1] For this battle, the commander of the Song Dynasty squadron, Li Bao, faced the opposing commander Zheng Jia, the admiral of the Jin Dynasty. On the fate of Zheng Jia, the historical text of the Jin Shi states:“Zheng Jia did not know the sea routes (among the islands) well, nor much about the management of ships, and he did not believe (that the enemy, the Song, was near)
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Joseph Needham
Noel Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham CH FRS FBA[1] (/ˈniːdəm/; 9 December 1900 – 24 March 1995) was a British biochemist, historian and sinologist known for his scientific research and writing on the history of Chinese science and technology
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China
China, officially the People's Republic
People's Republic
of China
China
(PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area,[k][19] depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world
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Military History Of China (pre-1911)
The recorded military history of China
China
extends from about 2200 BC to the present day
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Maritime History
Maritime history
Maritime history
is the study of human interaction with and activity at sea. It covers a broad thematic element of history that often uses a global approach, although national and regional histories remain predominant
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Paddle Steamer
A paddle steamer is a steamship or riverboat powered by a steam engine that drives paddle wheels to propel the craft through the water. In antiquity, paddle wheelers followed the development of poles, oars and sails, where the first uses were wheelers driven by animals or humans. Modern paddle wheelers may be powered by diesel engines.[a] But for their role as tourist attractions and small pedal-powered paddle boats, paddle propulsion has been largely superseded by the screw propeller and other marine propulsion systems that have a higher efficiency, especially in rough or open water.Contents1 Paddle wheels 2 Types of paddle steamers2.1 Sternwheeler 2.2 Sidewheeler3 Feathering paddlewheel 4 History4.1 Western world 4.2 East Asia5 Seagoing paddle steamers 6 Modern paddle steamers6.1 USA and Canada 6.2 Germany 6.3 Austria 6.4 Italy 6.5 Denmark 6.6 Norway 6.7 Switzerland6.7.1 Active Vessels6.8 France 6.9 United Kingdom 6.10 US
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Trebuchet
A trebuchet[nb 1] (French trébuchet) is a type of catapult, a common type of siege engine which uses a swinging arm to throw a projectile. The traction trebuchet first appeared in Ancient China during the 4th century BC as a siege weapon. It spread westward, probably by the Avars, and was adopted by the Byzantines in the mid 6th century AD. It uses manpower to swing the arm. The later counterweight trebuchet, also known as the counterpoise trebuchet, uses a counterweight to swing the arm
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Gunpowder
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive. It consists of a mixture of sulfur, charcoal, and potassium nitrate (saltpeter)
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Shanghai
Shanghai
Shanghai
(Chinese: 上海; Wu Chinese:  Wu pronunciation; Mandarin: [ʂâŋ.xài] ( listen)) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China
China
and the most populous city in the world, with a population of more than 24 million as of 2017[update].[13][14] It is a global financial centre[15] and transport hub, with the world's busiest container port.[16] Located in the Yangtze
Yangtze
River Delta, it sits on the south edge of the estuary of the Yangtze
Yangtze
in the middle portion of the East China
China
coast
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Squadron (naval)
A squadron, or naval squadron, is a significant group of warships which is nonetheless considered too small to be designated a fleet. A squadron is typically a part of a fleet. Between different navies there are no clear defining parameters to distinguish a squadron from a fleet (or from a flotilla), and the size and strength of a naval squadron varies greatly according to the country and time period.[1] Groups of small warships, or small groups of major warships, might instead be designated flotillas by some navies according to their terminology. Since the size of a naval squadron varies greatly, the rank associated with command of a squadron also varies greatly. Before 1864 the entire fleet of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
was divided into three squadrons, the red, the white, and the blue. Each Royal Navy
Royal Navy
squadron alone was more powerful than most national navies
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Shandong Peninsula
The Shandong
Shandong
Peninsula
Peninsula
is a peninsula in
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Fire Arrow
Fire arrows were one of the earliest forms of weaponized gunpowder. Not to be confused with earlier incendiary arrow projectiles, the fire arrow was a gunpowder weapon which receives its name from the translated Chinese term huǒjiàn (火箭), which literally means fire arrow. In China a 'fire arrow' referred to a gunpowder projectile consisting of a bag of incendiary gunpowder attached to the shaft of an arrow from the 9th century onward. Later on solid fuel rockets utilizing gunpowder were used to provide arrows with propulsive force and the term fire arrow became synonymous with rockets in the Chinese language
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Firearm
A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by rapidly expanding high-pressure gas produced by exothermic combustion (deflagration) of propellant within an ammunition cartridge.[1][2][3] If gas pressurization is not achieved via propellant combustion but through mechanical gas compression, then the gun is technically an air gun, not a firearm.[4] The first primitive firearms originated in 10th-century China when bamboo tubes containing gunpowder and pellet projectiles were mounted on spears into the one-person-portable fire lance,[5], which was later used as a shock weapon to good effect in the Siege of De'an. In 13th century, the Chinese invented the metal-barrelled hand cannon, widely considered to be the true ancestor of all firearms. The technology gradually spread through the rest of East Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and Europe
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Treaty Of Shaoxing
Shaoxing
Shaoxing
([ʂâuɕíŋ] ( listen); Chinese: 绍兴) is a prefecture-level city on the southern shore of Hangzhou Bay
Hangzhou Bay
in eastern Zhejiang
Zhejiang
province, China. It was formerly known as Kuaiji and Shanyin and abbreviated in Chinese as 越 (Yuè) from the area's former inhabitants. Located on the south bank of the Qiantang River
Qiantang River
estuary, it borders Ningbo
Ningbo
to the east, Taizhou to the southeast, Jinhua
Jinhua
to the southwest, and Hangzhou
Hangzhou
to the west. As of 2010, its population was 4,912,339 inhabitants
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Siege Of De'an
De'an County
De'an County
(Chinese: 德安县) is a county under Jiujiang City
Jiujiang City
in Jiangxi
Jiangxi
Province, China
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