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Battle Of Minden
 Great Britain Hanover Hesse-Kassel Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Schaumburg-Lippe  France  SaxonyCommanders and leaders Prince Ferdinand George Sackville Friedrich von Spörcken Marquis de Contades Victor-François de BroglieStrength37,000 and 181 guns[1] 44,000 and 162 guns[1]Casualties and losses2,762 killed, wounded or missing[2] 7,000 killed, wounded or missing[2]v t eSeven Years' War: European theatreBohemia and MoraviaLobositz Reichenberg Alt-Bunzlau Prague Siege of Prague Kolín Gabel Holitz Domstadtl Olomouc Prussian Bohemia Incursion TeplitzWestphalia, Hesse, Lower SaxonyHastenbeck Rheinberg Krefeld Sandershausen Meer 1st Lutterberg Bergen 1st Münster Minden Fulda 2nd Münster Corbach Emsdorf Warburg Kloster Kampen Langensalza 1st Cassel Grünberg Villinghausen Ölper Wilhelmsthal 2nd Lutterberg Nauheim Amöneburg 2nd CasselUpper SaxonyPirna Rossbach Sonnenstein
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Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
The Principality
Principality
of Brunswick- Wolfenbüttel
Wolfenbüttel
(German: Fürstentum Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel) was a subdivision of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, whose history was characterised by numerous divisions and reunifications. Various dynastic lines of the House of Welf ruled Brunswick- Wolfenbüttel
Wolfenbüttel
until the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806
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Landgraviate Of Hesse-Kassel
The Landgraviate
Landgraviate
of Hesse- Kassel
Kassel
(German: Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel), known as Hesse-Cassel during its existence,[1] was a state in the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
directly subject to the Emperor that came into existence when the Landgraviate of Hesse
Landgraviate of Hesse
was divided in 1567 upon the death of Philip I, Landgrave
Landgrave
of Hesse. His eldest son William IV inherited the northern half and the capital of Kassel
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Westphalia
Westphalia
Westphalia
(/wɛstˈfeɪliə/; German: Westfalen pronounced [vɛstˈfaːlən]) is a region in northwestern Germany
Germany
and one of the three historic parts of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It has an area of 20,208 km2 (7,802 sq mi) and 7.9 million inhabitants. The region is almost identical with the Province of Westphalia
Province of Westphalia
which was a part of the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
from 1815 to 1918[6] and the Free State of Prussia
Prussia
from 1918 to 1946. In 1946, Westphalia
Westphalia
merged with the Northern Rhineland, another former part of Prussia, to form the newly created state of North Rhine-Westphalia
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Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
(German: Niedersachsen [ˈniːdɐzaksn̩], Low German: Neddersassen) is a German state (Land) situated in northwestern Germany. It is the second largest state by land area, with 47,624 square kilometres (18,388 sq mi), and fourth largest in population (7.9 million) among the sixteen Länder federated as the Federal Republic of Germany. In rural areas Northern Low Saxon, a dialect of Low German, and Saterland Frisian, a variety of the Frisian language, are still spoken, but the number of speakers is declining. Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
borders on (from north and clockwise) the North Sea, the states of Schleswig-Holstein, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Brandenburg, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia, Hesse
Hesse
and North Rhine-Westphalia, and the Netherlands
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Battle Of Hastenbeck
A battle is a combat in warfare between two or more armed forces, or combatants. A war sometimes consists of many battles. Battles generally are well defined in duration, area, and force commitment.[1] A battle with only limited engagement between the forces and without decisive results is sometimes called a skirmish. Wars and military campaigns are guided by strategy, whereas battles take place on a level of planning and execution known as operational mobility.[2] German strategist Carl von Clausewitz
Carl von Clausewitz
stated that "the employment of battles ..
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Electorate Of Saxony
The Electorate of Saxony
Electorate of Saxony
(German: Kurfürstentum Sachsen, also Kursachsen), sometimes referred to as Upper Saxony, was a State of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
established when Emperor Charles IV raised the Ascanian duchy of Saxe- Wittenberg
Wittenberg
to the status of an Electorate by the Golden Bull of 1356. Upon the extinction of the House of Ascania, it was enfeoffed to the Margraves of Meissen
Meissen
from the Wettin dynasty in 1423, who moved the residence up the Elbe
Elbe
river to Dresden
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Kingdom Of France
La Parisienne (1830–1848) "The Parisian"The Kingdom of France
France
in 1789.Capital Paris
Paris
(987–1682) Versailles (1682–1789)
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Schaumburg-Lippe
Schaumburg-Lippe was created as a county in 1647, became a principality in 1807, a free state in 1918, and was until 1946 a small state in Germany, located in the present day state of Lower Saxony, with its capital at Bückeburg.Contents1 History 2 Rulers of Schaumburg-Lippe2.1 Counts of Schaumburg-Lippe (1640–1807) 2.2 Princes of Schaumburg-Lippe (1807–1918) 2.3 Heads of the House of Schaumburg-Lippe, post monarchy3 See also 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] Schaumburg-Lippe was formed as a county in 1647 through the division of the County of Schaumburg
County of Schaumburg
by treaties between the Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel
Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel
and the Count of Lippe. The division occurred because Count Otto V of Holstein-Schaumburg had died in 1640 leaving no male heir
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Hesse
Hesse
Hesse
(/ˈhɛsə/)[4] or Hessia (German: Hessen [ˈhɛsn̩], Hessian dialect: Hesse
Hesse
[ˈhɛzə]) is a federal state (Land) of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants. The state capital is Wiesbaden; the largest city is Frankfurt
Frankfurt
am Main. Until the unification of Germany, the territory of Hesse
Hesse
was occupied by the Grand Duchy of Hesse, the Duchy of Nassau, the free city of Frankfurt and the Electorate of Hesse, known also as Hesse-Cassel. Due to divisions after World War II, the modern federal state does not cover the entire cultural region of Hesse, which includes both the State of Hesse
Hesse
and the area known as Rhenish Hesse
Rhenish Hesse
(Rheinhessen) in the neighbouring state of Rhineland-Palatinate. The English name "Hesse" originates in the Hessian dialects
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Bohemia And Moravia
The Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(/ˈtʃɛk rɪˈpʌblɪk/ ( listen)[10] Czech: Česká republika, Czech pronunciation: [ˈtʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka] ( listen)),[11] also known as Czechia[12] (/ˈtʃɛkiə/ ( listen); Czech: Česko, pronounced [ˈtʃɛsko] ( listen)), is a landlocked country in Central Europe
Europe
bordered by Germany
Germany
to the west, Austria
Austria
to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland
Poland
to the northeast.[13] The Czech Republic
Czech Republic
covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres (30,450 sq mi) with a mostly temperate continental climate and oceanic climate. It is a unitary parliamentary republic, has 10.6 million inhabitants and the capital and largest city is Prague, with 1.3 million residents
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Electorate Of Hanover
The Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Brunswick-Lüneburg
(German: Kurfürstentum Braunschweig-Lüneburg), colloquially Electorate of Hanover
Hanover
(German: Kurfürstentum Hannover or simply German: Kurhannover), was established in 1692 as the ninth Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire and formally approved in 1708. It was ruled by the House of Hanover, a cadet branch of the House of Welf, which then ruled and earlier had ruled a number of principalities, which had several times been partitioned among several heirs from the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. After 1705, only two of these territories existed. One was the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, which remained independent as the Duchy of Brunswick (new title adopted in 1815) until 1918
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Province Of Hanover
The Province of Hanover (German: Provinz Hannover) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia from 1868 to 1946. During the Austro-Prussian War, the Kingdom of Hanover had attempted to maintain a neutral position, along with some other member states of the German Confederation. After Hanover voted in favour of mobilising confederation troops against Prussia on 14 June 1866, Prussia saw this as a just cause for declaring war; the Kingdom of Hanover was soon dissolved and annexed by Prussia
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Upper Saxony
Upper Saxony
Saxony
(German: Obersachsen) was the name given to the majority of the German lands held by the House of Wettin, in what is now called Central Germany (Mitteldeutschland). Conceptual history[edit] The name derives from when, after the fall of Duke Henry the Lion
Henry the Lion
in 1180, the medieval Duchy of Saxony
Duchy of Saxony
dissolved and the Duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg lands passed to the House of Ascania
House of Ascania
and later to the Wettins in the Margraviate of Meissen
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Germany
Coordinates: 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German)[a]FlagCoat of armsMotto:  "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" (de facto) "Unity and Justice and Freedom"Anthem: "Deutschlandlied" (third verse only)[b] "Song of Germany"Location of  Germany  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Location of
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North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine- Westphalia
Westphalia
(German: Nordrhein-Westfalen, pronounced [ˈnɔʁtʁaɪ̯n vɛstˈfaːlən] ( listen), commonly shortened to NRW) is the most populous state of Germany, with a population of approximately 18 million, and the fourth largest by area. Its capital is Düsseldorf; the largest city is Cologne. Four of Germany's ten largest cities (Cologne, Düsseldorf, Dortmund, and Essen) are located in this state, as well as the second largest metropolitan area on the European continent, Rhine-Ruhr. North Rhine- Westphalia
Westphalia
was founded in 1946 as a merger of the provinces of North Rhine
North Rhine
and Westphalia, both formerly parts of Prussia, and the Free State of Lippe
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