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Battle Of Krtsanisi
Qajar PersiaGanja Khanate Erivan KhanateCommanders and leaders Heraclius II Solomon II Agha Mohammad KhanStrength 3,000 2,000 35,000[5][6] or 40,000[7]Casualties and losses4,000 troops killed. Unknown number of wounded or captured[5] 15,000[7][8][9] captives (civilians) moved to mainland Persia 13,000 killed
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Russo-Persian War (1826-1828)
Russian victory Treaty of TurkmenchayTerritorial changes Persia irrevocably cedes what is present-day Armenia, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Iğdır Province
Iğdır Province
to RussiaBelligerents Russian Empire PersiaCommanders and leade
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Peter The Great
Peter the Great
Peter the Great
(Russian: Пётр Вели́кий, tr. Pyotr Velikiy, IPA: [ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj]), Peter I (Russian: Пётр I, tr. Pyotr I, IPA: [ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj]) or Peter Alexeyevich (Russian: Пётр Алексе́евич, IPA: [ˈpʲɵtr ɐlʲɪˈksʲejɪvʲɪtɕ]; 9 June [O.S. 30 May] 1672 – 8 February [O.S. 28 January] 1725)[a] ruled the Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia
and later the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
from 7 May (O.S. 27 April) 1682 until his death in 1725, jointly ruling before 1696 with his elder half-brother, Ivan V. Through a number of successful wars, he expanded the Tsardom into a much larger empire that became a major European power
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Teimuraz II Of Kakheti
Teimuraz II (Georgian: თეიმურაზ II) (1680–1762) of the Bagrationi dynasty, was a king of Kakheti, eastern Georgia, from 1732 to 1744, then of Kartli
Kartli
from 1744 until his death. Teimuraz was also a lyric poet.Contents1 Life 2 Reburial 3 Family 4 References 5 SourcesLife[edit] He was a son of Erekle I
Erekle I
and his wife Anna. Together with his mother, Teimuraz ruled as regent for his absent brother David II (Imam Quli-Khan) from 1709 to 1715. In 1732, the Turks killed the next king and Teimuraz’s other brother, Constantine, and took control of his kingdom. His successor, Teimuraz, fled to the mountains of Pshavi
Pshavi
and fought the occupants from there. In July 1735, the resurgent Persian ruler Nader Shah Afshar
Nader Shah Afshar
invaded Kakheti
Kakheti
and forced the Turks out of most of eastern Georgia
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Eastern Georgia
Eastern Georgia (Georgian: აღმოსავლეთ საქართველო, aghmosavlet' sak'art'velo) is a geographic area encompassing the territory of the Caucasian nation of Georgia to the east and south of the Likhi and Meskheti Ranges, but excluding the Black Sea
Black Sea
region of Adjara. Eastern Georgia includes the historic Georgian provinces of Samtskhe, Javakheti, Kartli
Kartli
with the national capital city of Tbilisi, Kakheti, Pshavi, Mtiuleti, Tusheti, Khevsureti, and Khevi. Current administrative regions (mkhare) of eastern Georgia are: Samtskhe-Javakheti, Shida Kartli, Kvemo Kartli, the city of Tbilisi, Mtskheta-Mtianeti, and Kakheti. The regions of Kartli
Kartli
and Kakheti, had been under Iranian suzerainty since 1555 following the Peace of Amasya
Peace of Amasya
signed with neighbouring rivalling Ottoman Turkey
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Treaty Of Turkmenchay
The Treaty of Turkmenchay
Treaty of Turkmenchay
(Russian: Туркманчайский договор, Persian: عهدنامه ترکمنچای‎) was an agreement between Persia
Persia
(Iran) and the Russian Empire, which concluded the Russo-Persian War (1826–28). It was signed on 10 February 1828 in Torkamanchay, Iran. By the treaty, Persia
Persia
ceded to Russia control of several areas in the South Caucasus: the Erivan Khanate, the Nakhchivan Khanate, and the remainder of the Talysh Khanate. The boundary between Russian and Persia
Persia
was set at the Aras River
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Karim Khan Zand
Mohammad Karim Khan Zand
Karim Khan Zand
(Persian: کریم خان زند‎, translit. Mohammad Karīm Khān-e Zand), better known as Karim Khan Zand (کریم خان زند), was the founder of the Zand Dynasty
Dynasty
and the Shah
Shah
of Iran, ruling from 1751 to 1779. He ruled all of Iran
Iran
(Persia) except for Khorasan.[1] He also ruled over some Caucasian lands and occupied Basra
Basra
for some years. While Karim was ruler, Iran
Iran
recovered from the devastation of 40 years of war, providing the war ravaged country with a renewed sense of tranquility, security, peace, and prosperity. The years from 1765 to Karim Khan's death in 1779 marked the zenith of Zand rule.[2] During his reign, relations with Britain were restored, and he allowed the East India Company
East India Company
to have a trading post in southern Iran
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Kura (Caspian Sea)
The Kura (Turkish: Kura; Azerbaijani: Kür; Georgian: მტკვარი, Mt’k’vari; Armenian: Կուր, Kur; Ancient Greek: Κῦρος, Cyrus; Persian: کوروش‎, Kuruš [7][8]) is an east-flowing river south of the Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains which drains the southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
east into the Caspian Sea. It also drains the north side of the Lesser Caucasus while its main tributary, the Aras drains the south side of those mountains. Starting in northeastern Turkey, it flows through Turkey
Turkey
to Georgia, then to Azerbaijan, where it receives the Aras as a right tributary, and enters the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
at Neftçala
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Aras River
The Aras or Araxes is a river flowing through Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran. It drains the south side of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains and then joins the Kura River, which drains the north side of Lesser Caucasus
Lesser Caucasus
Mountains. Its total length is 1,072 kilometres (666 mi), covering an area of 102,000 square kilometres (39,000 sq mi). The Aras River is one of the largest rivers in the Caucasus.Contents1 Names 2 Description 3 Etymology and history 4 Iğdır
Iğdır
Aras Valley Bird Paradise 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 FootnotesNames[edit] In the classical antiquity, the river was known to the Greeks as Araxes (Greek: Αράξης). Its modern Armenian name is Araks or Arax (Armenian: Արաքս). Historically it was also known as Yeraskh (Old Armenian: Երասխ), and its Old Georgian
Old Georgian
name is Rakhsi (რახსი). In Azerbaijani, the river name is Araz
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Fath Ali Shah
Fath-Ali Shah
Shah
Qajar (Persian: فتح‌على شاه قاجار‬‎; var. Fathalishah, Fathali Shah, Fath Ali Shah; 5 September 1772 – 23 October 1834) was the second Shah
Shah
(Qajar emperor) of Iran. He reigned from 17 June 1797 until his death. His reign saw the irrevocable ceding of Iran's northern territories in the Caucasus, comprising what is nowadays Georgia, Dagestan, Azerbaijan, and Armenia, to the Russian Empire following the Russo-Persian Wars of 1804–13 and 1826–28 and the resulting treaties of Gulistan and Turkmenchay.[1] Historian Joseph M
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Protectorate
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state. In exchange for this, the protectorate usually accepts specified obligations, which may vary greatly, depending on the real nature of their relationship. Therefore, a protectorate remains an autonomous part of a sovereign state. They are different from colonies as they have local rulers and people ruling over the territory and experience rare cases of immigration of settlers from the country it has suzerainty of
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Iran-Russia Relations
Relations between the Grand Duchy of Moscow and the Persian Empire (Iran), officially commenced in 1521, with the Safavids in power.[1] Past and present contact between Russia and Iran has long been complicatedly multi-faceted; often wavering between collaboration and rivalry. The two nations have a long history of geographic, economic, and socio-political interaction. Since then, mutual relations have often been turbulent, and dormant at other times. Currently Russia acts as both an economic partner and a military benefactor to Iran, a country under severe sanctions by much of the Western world.[2] Since the fall of the Soviet Union, the two neighboring nations have generally enjoyed very close cordial relations. Iran and Russia are strategic allies[3][4][5] and form an axis in the Caucasus alongside Armenia. Due to Western economic sanctions on Iran, Russia has become a key trading partner, especially in regard to the former's excess oil reserves
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Dagestan
The Republic of Dagestan
Dagestan
(Russian: Респу́блика Дагеста́н), or simply Dagestan
Dagestan
(/ˌdæɡɪˈstæn/ or /ˌdæɡɪˈstɑːn/; Russian: Дагеста́н), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus
North Caucasus
region. Its capital and largest city is Makhachkala, located at the center of Dagestan
Dagestan
on the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
coast. Its government was dissolved in a major corruption investigation on 5 February 2018, and the region is currently under the direct control of the Russian government.[12][13][14][15] With a population of 2,910,249,[6] Dagestan
Dagestan
is very ethnically diverse and Russia's most heterogeneous republic, with none of its several dozen ethnicities and subgroups forming a majority
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Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
(Russian: Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
and Western Asia.[1][2] Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
roughly corresponds to modern Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan
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Mazandaran Province
Mazandarani (Tabari)[5] Persian[5] Gilaki[6][7] Mazandaran
Mazandaran
Province  pronunciation (help·info), (Persian: استان مازندران‎ Ostān-e Māzandarān/Ostân-e Mâzandarân), is an Iranian province located along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea
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Tsar
Tsar
Tsar
(/zɑːr/ or /tsɑːr/) (Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь [usually written thus with a title] or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe. As a system of government in the Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia
and the Russian Empire, it is known as Tsarist autocracy, or Tsarism
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