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Battle Of Krtsanisi
Qajar Persia
Persia
* Ganja Khanate * Erivan Khanate COMMANDERS AND LEADERS Heraclius II Solomon II Agha Mohammad Khan STRENGTH 3,000 2,000 35,000 or 40,000 CASUALTIES AND LOSSES 4,000 troops killed. Unknown number of wounded or captured 15,000 captives (civilians) moved to mainland Persia
Persia
13,000 killed
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Eastern Georgia
EASTERN GEORGIA (Georgian : აღმოსავლეთ საქართველო, aghmosavlet' sak'art'velo) is a geographic area encompassing the territory of the Caucasian nation of Georgia to the east and south of the Likhi and Meskheti Ranges, but excluding the Black Sea
Black Sea
region of Adjara
Adjara

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Nader Shah
KHORASAN CAMPAIGN * Mashhad * Sangan * Sabzevar AFGHAN CAMPAIGNS * 1st Afghan Campaign * Kafer Qal\'eh * Herat 1729 * 2nd Afghan Campaign * Qandahar SAFAVID RESTORATION * Damghan * Khwar pass * Murche-Khort * Isfahan
Isfahan
* Zarghan FIRST OTTOMAN WAR * West Persian Campaign * Nahavand * Malayer * Tahmasp
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Zand Dynasty
The ZAND DYNASTY (Persian : سلسله زندیه‎‎, Silsilah-i Zandīyah; listen (help ·info )) was an Iranian dynasty of Lak a branch of Lurs origin founded by Karim Khan Zand that initially ruled southern and central Iran
Iran
in the 18th century. It later quickly came to expand to include much of the rest of contemporary Iran, as well as Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
, and parts of Iraq
Iraq
and Armenia
Armenia
. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Karim Khan Zand * 1.2 Decline and fall * 2 Culture * 3 Legacy * 4 Rulers/kings * 5 Other notable members * 6 Family tree * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links HISTORYKARIM KHAN ZAND Contemporary portrait of Karim Khan Zand , the founder of dynasty (1751)
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Protectorate
A PROTECTORATE, in its inception adopted by modern international law , is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state . In exchange for this, the protectorate usually accepts specified obligations, which may vary greatly, depending on the real nature of their relationship. Therefore, a protectorate remains an autonomous part of a sovereign state. They are different from colonies as they have local rulers and people ruling over the territory and experience rare cases of immigration of settlers from the country it has suzerainty of. However, a state which remains under the protection of another state but still retains independence is known as a PROTECTED STATE and is different from protectorates
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Treaty Of Turkmenchay
The TREATY OF TURKMENCHAY (Russian : Туркманчайский договор, Persian : عهدنامه ترکمنچای‎‎) was an agreement between Persia
Persia
(modern-day Iran
Iran
) and the Russian Empire , which concluded the Russo-Persian War (1826–28) . It was signed on 10 February 1828 in Torkamanchay
Torkamanchay
, Iran. By the treaty, Persia
Persia
ceded to Russia control of several areas in the South Caucasus
South Caucasus
: the Erivan Khanate , the Nakhchivan Khanate , and the remainder of the Talysh Khanate . The boundary between Russian and Persia
Persia
was set at the Aras River
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Kura (Caspian Sea)
The KURA (Turkish : Kura; Azerbaijani : Kür; Georgian : მტკვარი, Mt'k'vari; Armenian : Կուր, Kur; Ancient Greek : Cyrus; Persian : Kurosh‎‎ ) is an east-flowing river south of the Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains which drains the southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus
Caucasus
east into the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
. It also drains the north side of the Lesser Caucasus
Caucasus
while its main tributary, the Aras drains the south side of those mountains. Starting in northeastern Turkey, it flows through Turkey
Turkey
to Georgia, then to Azerbaijan, where it receives the Aras as a right tributary, and enters the Caspian Sea. The total length of the river is 1,515 kilometres (941 mi)
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Dagestan
The REPUBLIC OF DAGESTAN (/dɑːɡᵻˈstɑːn/ or /ˈdæɡᵻstæn/ ; Russian : Респу́блика Дагеста́н, Respublika Dagestan), also spelled DAGHESTAN, is a federal subject (a republic ) of Russia
Russia
, located in the North Caucasus region. Its capital and largest city is Makhachkala , located at the center of Dagestan
Dagestan
on the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
. With a population of 2,910,249, Dagestan
Dagestan
is very ethnically diverse and Russia's most heterogeneous republic, with none of its several dozen ethnicities and subgroups forming a majority. Largest among these ethnicities are the Avar , Dargin , Kumyk , Lezgian , Laks , Azerbaijani , Tabasaran and Chechen . Ethnic Russians comprise about 3.6% of Dagestan's total population. Russian is the primary official language and the lingua franca among the ethnicities
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Fath Ali Shah
FATH-ALI SHAH QAJAR (Persian : فتح‌على شاه قاجار‎‎; var. Fathalishah, Fathali Shah, Fath Ali Shah; 5 September 1772 – 23 October 1834) was the second Shah
Shah
(Qajar emperor ) of Iran
Iran
. He reigned from 17 June 1797 until his death. His reign saw the irrevocable ceding of Iran's northern territories in the Caucasus
Caucasus
, comprising what is nowadays Georgia , Dagestan
Dagestan
, Azerbaijan , and Armenia
Armenia
, to the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
following the Russo-Persian Wars of 1804–13 and 1826–28 and the resulting treaties of Gulistan and Turkmenchay . Historian Joseph M
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Aras River
The ARAS or ARAXES is a river in and along the countries of Turkey
Turkey
, Armenia
Armenia
, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
, and Iran
Iran
. It drains the south side of the Lesser Caucasus
Lesser Caucasus
Mountains and joins the Kura River which drains the north side of those mountains. Its total length is 1,072 kilometres (666 mi), covering an area of 102,000 square kilometres (39,000 sq mi).The Aras River is one of the largest in the Caucasus
Caucasus
. CONTENTS * 1 Names * 2 Description * 3 Etymology and history * 4 Iğdır
Iğdır
Aras Valley Bird Paradise * 5 Gallery * 6 See also * 7 Footnotes NAMESIn the classical antiquity, the river was known to the Greeks as ARAXES (Greek : Αράξης). Its modern Armenian name is Araks or Arax (Armenian : Արաքս)
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Iran-Russia Relations
Relations between the Grand Duchy of Moscow
Grand Duchy of Moscow
and the Persian Empire (pre-1935 Iran
Iran
), officially commenced in 1521, with the Safavids
Safavids
in power. Past and present contact between Russia
Russia
and Iran
Iran
has long been complicatedly multi-faceted; often wavering between collaboration and rivalry. The two nations have a long history of geographic, economic, and socio-political interaction. Since then, mutual relations have often been turbulent, and dormant at other times. Currently Russia acts as both an economic partner and a military benefactor to Iran, a country under severe sanctions by much of the Western world
Western world
. Since the fall of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, the two neighboring nations have generally enjoyed very close cordial relations
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Mazandaran Province
Mazandarani (Tabari) Persian Gilaki MAZANDARAN PROVINCE pronunciation (help ·info ), (Persian : استان مازندران‎‎ Ostān-e Māzandarān/Ostâne Mâzandarân), is an Iranian province located along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
and in the adjacent Central Alborz
Alborz
mountain range, in central-northern Iran
Iran

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Tabriz
TABRIZ (pronounced ( listen )) (Persian : تبریز‎‎, Azerbaijani : تبریز) is the most populated city in Iranian Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
, one of the historical capitals of Iran
Iran
and the present capital of East Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
province . Located in the Quru River valley, between long ridges of volcanic cones in the Sahand and Eynali mountains, Tabriz's elevation ranges between 1,350 and 1,600 metres (4,430 and 5,250 ft) above sea level. The valley opens up into a plain that gently slopes down to the eastern shores of Lake Urmia
Lake Urmia
, 60 kilometres (37 miles) to the west. With cold winters and temperate summers, Tabriz
Tabriz
is considered a summer resort
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Gudovich
Count
Count
IVAN VASILYEVICH GUDOVICH (Russian : Иван Васильевич Гудович; 1741–1820) was a Russian noble and military leader of Ukrainian descent. His exploits included the capture of Khadjibey (1789) and the conquest of maritime Dagestan (1807). Ivan's father was an influential member of the Ukrainian Cossack starshina . He sent his sons to be educated abroad, at the Königsberg Albertina University and the University of Leipzig
University of Leipzig
. Upon coming to St Petersburg in 1759, Gudovich joined the Russian Army , hoping to benefit from the favours enjoyed by his elder brother, Andrey, an aide-de-camp to Peter III . Upon the latter's dethronement in 1762, the Gudovich brothers were apprehended and briefly imprisoned
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Ottoman Empire
The OTTOMAN EMPIRE (/ˈɒtəmən/ ; Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye ), also historically known in Western Europe
Europe
as the TURKISH EMPIRE or simply TURKEY, was a state that controlled much of southeastern Europe, western Asia and northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia
Anatolia
in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province ) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman . After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe
Europe
, and with the conquest of the Balkans
Balkans
, the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople
Constantinople
by Mehmed the Conqueror
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Caucasus
Russia
Russia
* Adygea * Chechnya
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