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Battle Of Grunwald
Kingdom of Poland Grand Duchy of Lithuania Polish–Lithuanian vassals, allies and mercenaries:[1] Czechs, Bohemia,[1] Moravia,[1] Ruthenia,[2] Masovia,[3] Moldavia,[4] Tatars,[2] Wallachia,[5] Smolensk Teutonic Order Allies (Pomerania-Stettin), guest crusaders, and mercenaries from western EuropeCommanders and leadersKing of Poland Władysław II Jagiełło, supreme commander[1] Vytautas
Vytautas
the Great, Lithuanian commanderGrandmaster Ulrich von Jungingen †Strength16,000–39,000 men[6] 11,000–27,000 men[6]Casualties and lossesUnknown (light) Very heavy: 203–211 out of 270 Teutonic knights killed[7]Battle site on a map of modern Polandv t ePolish–Lithuanian– Teutonic WarGrunwald Marienburg KoronowoThe Battle of Grunwald, First Battle of Tannenberg or Battle of Žalgiris, was fought on 15 July 1410 during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War
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Battle Of Grunwald (other)
The Battle of Grunwald
Battle of Grunwald
was fought between Poles, Lithuanians and Teutonic Knights in 1410. The Battle of Grunwald
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Soviet Propaganda
Communist propaganda
Communist propaganda
in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was extensively based on the Marxism- Leninism
Leninism
ideology to promote the Communist Party line. Largely in the Stalinist era, it penetrated even social and natural sciences giving rise to various pseudo-scientific theories like Lysenkoism, whereas fields of real knowledge, as genetics, cybernetics, and comparative linguistics were condemned and forbidden as "bourgeois pseudoscience". The main Soviet censorship body, Glavlit, was employed not only to eliminate any undesirable printed materials, but also "to ensure that the correct ideological spin was put on every published item". In the Stalin
Stalin
Era, deviation from the dictates of official propaganda was punished by execution and labor camps
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Teutonic Knights
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem[2] (official names: Latin: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, German: Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order
Catholic religious order
founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem. The Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
was formed to aid Christians
Christians
on their pilgrimages to the Holy Land
Holy Land
and to establish hospitals
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Malbork
Malbork
Malbork
[ˈmalbɔrk] ( listen) (German: Marienburg ( listen); Latin: Civitas Beatae Virginis) is a town in northern Poland
Poland
in the Żuławy region ( Vistula
Vistula
delta), with 38,478 inhabitants (2006). Situated in the Pomeranian Voivodeship
Pomeranian Voivodeship
since 1999, it was previously assigned to Elbląg Voivodeship
Elbląg Voivodeship
(1975–1998)
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Peace Of Thorn (1411)
The (First) Peace of Thorn was a peace treaty formally ending the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War
Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War
between allied Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
on one side, and the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
on the other
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Toruń
Toruń
Toruń
[ˈtɔruɲ] ( listen) (German: Thorn) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula
Vistula
River. Its population was 202,591 as of June 2016.[1] Previously it was the capital of the Toruń Voivodeship (1975–98) and the Pomeranian Voivodeship
Pomeranian Voivodeship
(1921–45). Since 1999, Toruń
Toruń
has been a seat of the self-government of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship
Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship
and, as such, is one of its two capitals (together with Bydgoszcz)
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Peace Of Melno
The Treaty of Melno
Treaty of Melno
(Lithuanian: Melno taika; Polish: Pokój melneński) or Treaty of Lake Melno
Lake Melno
(German: Friede von Melnosee) was a peace treaty ending the Gollub War. It was signed on 27 September 1422, between the Teutonic Knights and an alliance of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
at Lake Melno
Lake Melno
(German: Melnosee, Meldensee; Polish: Jezioro Mełno), east of Graudenz (Grudziądz). The treaty resolved territorial disputes between the Knights and Lithuania
Lithuania
regarding Samogitia, which had dragged on since 1382, and determined the Prussian–Lithuanian border, which afterwards remained unchanged for about 500 years
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War Reparations
War reparations are payments made after a war by the vanquished to the victors. They are intended to cover damage or injury inflicted during a war. Generally, the term war reparations refers to money or goods changing hands, but not to the annexation of land.Contents1 History1.1 Europe1.1.1 Napoleonic War 1.1.2 Franco-Prussian War 1.1.3 Greco-Turkish War of 1897 1.1.4 World War I 1.1.5 World War II
World War II
Germ
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Polish–Lithuanian Union
Polish–Lithuanian can refer to: Polish–Lithuanian union (1385–1569) Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
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Medieval Europe
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire
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Romantic Nationalism
Romantic nationalism
Romantic nationalism
(also national romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs. This includes, depending on the particular manner of practice, the language, race, culture, religion, and customs of the nation in its primal sense of those who were born within its culture. This form of nationalism arose in reaction to dynastic or imperial hegemony, which assessed the legitimacy of the state from the top down, emanating from a monarch or other authority, which justified its existence
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Nazi Propaganda
The propaganda used by the German Nazi Party
Nazi Party
in the years leading up to and during Adolf Hitler's leadership of Germany (1933–1945) was a crucial instrument for acquiring and maintaining power, and for the implementation of Nazi policies
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Marcin Bielski
Marcin Bielski
Marcin Bielski
(or Wolski; 1495 – 18 December 1575) was a Polish chronicler and satirical poet. He was born of noble parentage on the patrimonial estate of Biała (whence the family name), Pajęczno County, in the Polish province of Sieradz. His alternate surname Wolski derives from his estate at Wola. One of two Polish writers of the same name, he was the first to use the Polish language, hence his designation as the father of Polish prose. Life[edit] Bielski was educated at the University of Kraków, founded by Casimir the Great in 1364, and spent some time with the military governor of that city
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Jagiellon Poland
The rule of the Jagiellonian dynasty
Jagiellonian dynasty
in Poland
Poland
between 1386 and 1572 spans the late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and early Modern Era in European history. The dynasty was founded by the Lithuanian Grand Duke Jogaila (Władysław II Jagiełło), whose marriage to Queen Jadwiga of Poland formed a Polish–Lithuanian union. The partnership brought vast territories controlled by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
into Poland's sphere of influence and proved beneficial for both the Polish and Lithuanian people, who coexisted and cooperated in one of the largest political entities in Europe
Europe
for the next four centuries.[1][2] In the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
region, Poland's maintained an ongoing conflict with the Teutonic Knights
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Monastic State Of The Teutonic Order
The State of the Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
(German: Staat des Deutschen Ordens; Latin: Civitas Ordinis Theutonici), also called Deutschordensstaat (pronounced [ˈdɔʏtʃ ɔɐdənsˌʃtaːt]) or Ordensstaat[2] (pronounced [ˈɔɐdənsˌʃtaːt]) in German, was a crusader state formed by the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
or Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
during the 13th century Northern Crusades
Northern Crusades
along the Baltic Sea. The state was based in Prussia
Prussia
after the Order's conquest of the Pagan Old Prussians
Old Prussians
which began in 1230. It expanded to include at various times Courland, Gotland, Livonia, Neumark, Pomerelia
Pomerelia
and Samogitia. Its territory was in the modern countries of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Russia
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