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Battle Of Falkirk
Coordinates : 55°59′15″N 3°45′41″W / 55.98755°N 3.761476°W / 55.98755; -3.761476 BATTLE OF FALKIRK Part of the First War of Scottish Independence
First War of Scottish Independence
A British illustration of Antony Bek's charge DATE 22 July 1298 LOCATION Falkirk
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Cavalry
CAVALRY (from French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or HORSEMEN were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback . Cavalry
Cavalry
were historically the most mobile of the combat arms . An individual soldier in the cavalry is known by a number of designations such as CAVALRYMAN, HORSEMAN, DRAGOON or TROOPER . The designation of cavalry was not usually given to any military forces that used other animals , such as camels , mules or elephants . Infantry
Infantry
who moved on horseback, but dismounted to fight on foot, were known in the 17th and early 18th centuries as dragoons , a class of mounted infantry which later evolved into cavalry proper while retaining their historic title. Cavalry
Cavalry
had the advantage of improved mobility, and a man fighting from horseback also had the advantages of greater height, speed, and inertial mass over an opponent on foot
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Scottish People
Scotland
Scotland
4,446,000 (2011) (Scottish descent only) UNITED STATES B 6,006,955 Scottish 5,393,554 Scotch-Irish CANADA C 4,719,850 AUSTRALIA 1,792,600 ENGLAND D 795,000 :8 NORTHERN IRELAND E 760,620 ARGENTINA 100,000 CHILE 80,000 BRAZIL 45,000 FRANCE 45,000 POLAND 15,000 NEW ZEALAND 14,412 SOUTH AFRICA 11,160 (estimate) :10 ISLE OF MAN 2,403 HONG KONG G 1,459 LANGUAGES English ( Scottish English ) Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
Scots RELIGION Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
, Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
, Episcopalianism ; other minority groups------------------------- A These figures are estimates based on census data of populations and official surveys of identity
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Infantry
INFANTRY is the general branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot. As the troops who engage with the enemy in close-ranged combat, infantry units bear the largest brunt of warfare and typically suffer the greatest number of casualties during a military campaign. Historically, as the oldest branch of the combat arms , the infantry are the tip of the spear of a modern army, and continually undergo training that is typically more physically demanding and psychologically stressful than that of any other branch of the combat arms. Common representations of infantry fighting forces include the U.S. Army Infantry
Infantry
Branch , U.S. Marine Corps
U.S. Marine Corps
Infantry
Infantry
, Royal Canadian Infantry Corps , Infantry of the British Army , and the Royal Australian Corps of Infantry
Infantry
, infantry of the Norwegian Army
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Goidelic Languages
The GOIDELIC /ɡɔɪˈdɛlɪk/ or GAELIC LANGUAGES (Irish : teangacha Gaelacha; Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
: cànanan Goidhealach; Manx : çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups of Insular Celtic languages , the other being the Brittonic languages . Goidelic languages
Goidelic languages
historically formed a dialect continuum stretching from Ireland
Ireland
through the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
to Scotland
Scotland
. There are three modern Goidelic languages: Irish (Gaeilge), Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) and Manx (Gaelg), the last of which died out in the 20th century but has since been revived to some degree
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Anglo-Scottish Wars
The ANGLO-SCOTTISH WARS were a series of wars fought between the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
and the Kingdom of Scotland following the Wars of Scottish Independence in the 14th century, and ended by the Union of the Crowns in 1603, wherein England and Scotland entered a personal union under James VI and I
James VI and I
, who inherited both crowns. After the Wars of Scottish Independence, England and Scotland fought several times during the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. In most cases, one country attempted to take advantage of weakness or instability in the other. For example, James II of Scotland
James II of Scotland
attempted to regain Berwick during the Wars of the Roses
Wars of the Roses
in England
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Guardian Of Scotland
The GUARDIANS OF SCOTLAND were the de facto heads of state of Scotland during the First Interregnum of 1290–1292, and the Second Interregnum of 1296–1306. During the many years of minority in Scotland's subsequent history, there were many guardians of Scotland and the post was a significant constitutional feature in the course of development for politics in the country
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Second War Of Scottish Independence
Scottish victory * David II retained the throne and independence from the Kingdom of England BELLIGERENTS Kingdom of Scotland Kingdom of France Kingdom of England COMMANDERS AND LEADERS William Douglas, Lord of Liddesdale Philip VI of France Alexander Ramsay David II of Scotland Donald II, Earl of Mar Sir Archibald Douglas William Douglas, 1st Earl of Douglas John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray Sir Andrew Murray Edward III of England Edward Balliol Henry de Beaumont William Zouche Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk David of Strathbogie Ralph Dacre, 1st Baron Dacre Henry de Percy, 2nd Baron Percy STRENGTH Up to 13,000 Up to 9,000 CASUALTIES AND LOSSES Unknown Unknown * v * t * e Scottish Independence Wars * First * Second * Third * v * t * e Second War of Scottish Independence * Wester Kinghorn * Dup
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Kingdom Of England
Unitary parliamentary monarchy (1215–1707) MONARCH • 927–939 Æthelstan
Æthelstan
(first) • 1702–1707 Anne (last) LEGISLATURE Parliament • Upper house House of Lords
House of Lords
• Lower house House of Commons
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Philip IV Of France
PHILIP IV (April–June 1268 – 29 November 1314), called THE FAIR (French : Philippe le Bel, Basque : Filipe Ederra) or THE IRON KING (French : le Roi de fer), was King of France
France
from 1285 until his death. By virtue of his marriage with Joan I of Navarre , he was also PHILIP I, King of Navarre from 1284 to 1305. He also briefly ruled the County of Champagne
County of Champagne
in right of his wife (jure uxoris ) although after his accession as king in 1285 the county remained under the sole governance of his wife until 1305, and then fell to his son, Louis until 1314. The handsome prince was nicknamed "le Bel", or the Fair, but his inflexible personality gained him other epithets, from friend and foe alike. His fierce opponent Bernard Saisset , bishop of Pamiers , said of him, "He is neither man nor beast
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England
ENGLAND is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. It shares land borders with Scotland
Scotland
to the north and Wales
Wales
to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England
England
and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England
England
is separated from continental Europe
Europe
by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel
English Channel
to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
(which lies in the North Atlantic ) in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller named islands such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight
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Scotland
SCOTLAND (/ˈskɒt.lənd/ ; Scots : ; Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
: Alba
Alba
( listen )) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
. It shares a border with England
England
to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, with the North Sea
North Sea
to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides . The Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
and continued to exist until 1707
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Kingdom Of Scotland
The KINGDOM OF SCOTLAND ( Scottish Gaelic : Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Scots : Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843, which joined with the Kingdom of England to form a unified Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. Its territories expanded and shrank, but it came to occupy the northern third of the island of Great Britain , sharing a land border to the south with the Kingdom of England . It suffered many invasions by the English, but under Robert I it fought a successful war of independence and remained a distinct state in the late Middle Ages. In 1603, James VI of Scotland became King of England , joining Scotland with England in a personal union . In 1707, the two kingdoms were united to form the Kingdom of Great Britain under the terms of the Acts of Union
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Battle Of Skaithmuir
The BATTLE OF SKAITHMUIR was a skirmish of the First War of Scottish Independence . It took place near Coldstream , on the Anglo-Scottish border , in February 1316. The skirmish was fought between the Scottish captain Sir James Douglas , and an English raiding party from Berwick upon Tweed
Berwick upon Tweed
. The English were having difficulty getting supplies to Berwick after the Scots had won back the surrounding territory and the garrison was facing starvation. Under Edmond Caillou , a Gascon knight, about 80 men set out from Berwick to raid Teviotdale for cattle. Douglas, having been informed that there were fewer in the raiding party, set out to cut them off. Douglas won, and Caillou was killed. Douglas later called it the most difficult fight of his long career. The Scots under Douglas and Thomas Randolph went on to capture Berwick in April 1318. REFERENCES * ^ David Hume, David Reid (1996), The history of the house of Douglas, p
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Battle Of Faughart
The BATTLE OF FAUGHART (or Battle of Dundalk ) was fought on 14 October 1318 between a Hiberno-Norman force led by John de Bermingham (later created 1st Earl of Louth ) and Edmund Butler , Earl of Carrick , and a Scots-Irish army commanded by Prince Edward Bruce , Earl of Carrick , brother of King Robert I of Scots ('Robert the Bruce'). It was a battle of the First War of Scottish Independence and more precisely the Irish Bruce Wars . The defeat and death of Bruce at the battle ended the attempt to revive the High Kingship of Ireland
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