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Battle Of Falkirk
Coordinates: 55°59′15″N 3°45′41″W / 55.98755°N 3.761476°W / 55.98755; -3.761476Battle of FalkirkPart of the First War of Scottish IndependenceA British illustration of Antony Bek's chargeDate 22 July 1298Location Falkirk, ScotlandResult English victoryBelligerents Kingdom of Scotland  Kingdom of EnglandCommanders and leaders William Wallace, Guardian of Scotland Edward I of EnglandStrength6,000 men1,000 cavalry [1] 5,000 infantry15,000 men[2]2,500 cavalry[3] 12,500 infantry[2]Casualties and lossesAround 2,000 killed [4] 2,000 killed[5]v t eFirst War of Scottish IndependenceFirst Berwick Dunbar Lanark Stirling
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Philip IV Of France
Philip IV (April–June 1268 – 29 November 1314), called the Fair (French: Philippe le Bel) or the Iron King (French: le Roi de fer), was King of France
France
from 1285 until his death. By virtue of his marriage with Joan I of Navarre, he was also Philip I, King of Navarre from 1284 to 1305. He also briefly ruled the County of Champagne
County of Champagne
in right of his wife, although after his accession as king in 1285 the county remained under the sole governance of his wife until her death in 1305, and then fell to his son Louis until Philip's own death in 1314, after which the county was finally united to the crown lands of France. Although Philip was known as handsome, his inflexible personality gained him other epithets, from friend and foe alike. His fierce opponent Bernard Saisset, bishop of Pamiers, said of him, "He is neither man nor beast
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Goidelic Languages
The Goidelic /ɡɔɪˈdɛlɪk/ or Gaelic languages (Irish: teangacha Gaelacha; Scottish Gaelic: cànanan Goidhealach; Manx: çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups of Insular Celtic languages, the other being the Brittonic languages.[2] Goidelic languages
Goidelic languages
historically formed a dialect continuum stretching from Ireland
Ireland
through the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
to Scotland
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Second War Of Scottish Independence
Scottish victoryDavid II retained the throne and independence from the Kingdom of EnglandBelligerents Kingdom of Scotland Kingdom of France Kingdom of EnglandCommanders and leadersWilliam Douglas, Lord of Liddesdale Philip VI of France Alexander Ramsay David II of Scotland Donald II, Earl of Mar Sir Archibald Douglas William Douglas, 1st Earl of Douglas John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray Sir Andrew Murray Edward III of England Edward Balliol Henry de Beaumont William Zouche Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk David of Strathbogie Ralph Dacre, 1st Baron Dacre Henry de Percy, 2nd Baron PercyStrengthUp to 13,000 Up to 9,000Casualties and lossesUnknown Unknownv t eScottish Independence WarsFirst Second Thirdv t eSecond War of Scottish IndependenceWester Kinghorn Dupplin Moor Annan Dornock Halidon Hill Boroughmuir Culblean Neville's Cross Nisbet Moor (1355) BerwickThe S
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Infantry
Infantry
Infantry
is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces. Also known as foot soldiers, infantry traditionally relies on moving by foot between combats as well, but may also use mounts, military vehicles, or other transport
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Anglo-Scottish Wars
The Anglo-Scottish Wars
Anglo-Scottish Wars
comprise the various battles which continued to be fought between the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
and the Kingdom of Scotland from the time of the Wars of Independence in the early 14th century through to the latter years of the 16th century. Although the Wars of Independence, in which Scotland twice resisted attempted conquest by Plantagenet
Plantagenet
kings of England, formally ended in the treaties of 1328 and 1357 respectively, relations between the two countries remained uneasy. Incursions by English kings into Scotland continued under Richard II and Henry IV and informal cross-border conflict remained endemic. Formal flashpoints on the border included places remaining under English occupation, such as Roxburgh Castle
Roxburgh Castle
or the port of Berwick-upon-Tweed
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Cavalry
Cavalry
Cavalry
(from French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback. Cavalry
Cavalry
were historically the most mobile of the combat arms. An individual soldier in the cavalry is known by a number of designations such as cavalryman, horseman, dragoon or trooper. The designation of cavalry was not usually given to any military forces that used other animals, such as camels, mules or elephants. Infantry
Infantry
who moved on horseback, but dismounted to fight on foot, were known in the 17th and early 18th centuries as dragoons, a class of mounted infantry which later evolved into cavalry proper while retaining their historic title. Cavalry
Cavalry
had the advantage of improved mobility, and a man fighting from horseback also had the advantages of greater height, speed, and inertial mass over an opponent on foot
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Kingdom Of England
Unitary parliamentary monarchy (1215–1707)Monarch •  927–939 Æthelstan
Æthelstan
(first)[a] •  1702–1707 Anne (last)[b]Legislature Parliament •  Upper house House of Lords •  Lower house House of CommonsHistory •  Unification 10th century •  Battle of Hastings 14 October 1066 •  Conquered Wales 1277–1283 •  Incorporated Wales 1535–1542 •  Union of the Crowns 24 March 1603 •  Glorious Revolution 11 December 1688 
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Kingdom Of Scotland
The Kingdom of Scotland
Scotland
(Scottish Gaelic: Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Scots: Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843. Its territories expanded and shrank, but it came to occupy the northern third of the island of Great Britain, sharing a land border to the south with the Kingdom of England. It suffered many invasions by the English, but under Robert I it fought a successful war of independence and remained an independent state throughout the late Middle Ages. In 1603, James VI of Scotland
Scotland
became King of England, joining Scotland
Scotland
with England in a personal union
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Scotland
Scotland
Scotland
(/ˈskɒtlənd/; Scots: [ˈskɔtlənd]; Scottish Gaelic: Alba
Alba
[ˈal̪ˠapə] ( listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.[16][17][18] It shares a border with England
England
to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands,[19] including the Northern Isles
Northern Isles
and the Hebrides. The Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
and continued to exist until 1707
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Scottish People
 Scotland   4,446,000 (2011) (Scottish descent only)[2] United StatesB 6,006,955 Scottish 5,393,554 Scotch-Irish[3][4][unreliable source?] CanadaC[further explanation needed] 4,719,850[5] Australia 2,023,474[6] EnglandD 795,000[7]:8 Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
E 760,620[citation needed] Argentina 100,000[citation needed] Chile 80,000[citation needed] Brazil 45,000[citation needed] France 45,000[citation needed] Poland 15,000[citation needed]&
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Guardian Of Scotland
The Guardians of Scotland were the de facto heads of state of Scotland[1] during the First Interregnum of 1290–1292, and the Second Interregnum of 1296–1306
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Battle Of Faughart
The Battle of Faughart (or Battle of Dundalk[3]) was fought on 14 October 1318 between a Hiberno-Norman
Hiberno-Norman
force led by John de Bermingham (later created 1st Earl of Louth) and Edmund Butler, Earl of Carrick, and a Scots-Irish army commanded by Prince Edward Bruce, Earl of Carrick, brother of King Robert I of Scots ('Robert the Bruce'). It was a battle of the First War of Scottish Independence
First War of Scottish Independence
and more precisely the Irish Bruce Wars. The defeat and death of Bruce at the battle ended the attempt to revive the High Kingship of Ireland
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Battle Of Connor
The Battle of Connor was fought on 10 September 1315, in the townland of Tannybrake just over a mile north of what is now the modern village of Connor, County Antrim.[1] It was part of the Bruce campaign in Ireland. Contents1 Background 2 Prelude 3 Battle 4 Aftermath 5 ReferencesBackground[edit] Main article: Bruce campaign in Ireland Edward Bruce
Edward Bruce
landed in Larne, in modern-day County Antrim, on 26 May 1315. In early June, Donall Ó Néill of Tyrone and some twelve fellow northern Kings and lords met Edward Bruce
Edward Bruce
at Carrickfergus and swore fealty to him as King of Ireland.[2] Edward held the town of Carrickfergus, but was unable to take the Castle
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Battle Of Kells
The Battle of Kells was a battle between Edward Bruce
Edward Bruce
and Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March. Background[edit] After his victory at the Battle of Connor Bruce pursued the retreating English army back to Carrickfergus
Carrickfergus
and laid siege to the castle, where they had taken refuge. Around 13 November Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray returned from Scotland with 500 experienced soldiers.[1] Leaving a besieging party at Carrickfergus, Bruce travelled to Dundalk to meet Moray, and together led the Scots into County Meath. Through his marriage to Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville, Roger Mortimer succeeded to the eastern part of the Lordship of Meath, centred on Trim and its stronghold of Trim Castle
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