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Battle Of Bussaco
The Battle of Buçaco (pronounced [buˈsaku]) or Bussaco, fought on 27 September 1810 during the Peninsular War
Peninsular War
in the Portuguese mountain range of Serra do Buçaco, resulted in the defeat of French forces by Lord Wellington's Anglo-Portuguese Army.[3][4] Having occupied the heights of Bussaco
Bussaco
(a 10-mile (16 km) long ridge located at 40°20'40"N, 8°20'15"W) with 25,000 British and the same number of Portuguese, Wellington was attacked five times successively by 65,000 French under Marshal André Masséna. Masséna was uncertain as to the disposition and strength of the opposing forces because Wellington deployed them on the reverse slope of the ridge, where they could neither be easily seen nor easily softened up with artillery
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4th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)
The 4th Infantry
Infantry
Division was a regular infantry division of the British Army
British Army
with a very long history, seeing active service in the Peninsular War, the Crimean War, the First World War, and during the Second World War
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Bussaco
Serra do Buçaco (formerly Bussaco) is a mountain range in Portugal, formerly included in the province of Beira Litoral.[1][2] The highest point in the range is the Cruz Alta at 549 m (1801 feet), which has views over the Serra da Estrela, the Mondego River valley and the Atlantic Ocean. The Serra includes the buildings of a secularized Carmelite monastery, founded in 1628. The convent woods have long been known for their cypress, plane, evergreen oak, cork and other forest trees, many of which have stood for centuries and attained an immense size. A bull of Pope Gregory XV (1623), anathematizing trespassers and forbidding women to approach, is inscribed on a tablet at the main entrance; another bull, of Pope Urban VIII (1643), threatens with excommunication any person harming the trees
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Thomas Picton
Lieutenant-General Sir Thomas Picton
Thomas Picton
GCB (24 August 1758[1] – 18 June 1815), a Welsh officer of the British Army, fought in a number of campaigns for Britain in the Napoleonic Wars. According to the historian Alessandro Barbero, Picton was "respected for his courage and feared for his irascible temperament". The Duke of Wellington called him "a rough foul-mouthed devil as ever lived", but found him capable. Picton came to public attention initially for his alleged cruelty during his governorship (1797–1803) of Trinidad, as a result of which he was put on trial in England for illegally torturing a woman. Though he was convicted, the conviction was later overturned. He is chiefly remembered for his exploits under Wellington in the Iberian Peninsular War
Peninsular War
of 1807–1814, during which he fought in many engagements, displaying great bravery and persistence
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Major General
Major
Major
general (abbreviated MG,[1] Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. The disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the apparently confusing phenomenon whereby a lieutenant general outranks a major general. (Although a major outranks a lieutenant, a lieutenant outranks a sergeant-major). In the Commonwealth
Commonwealth
and the United States, it is a division commander's rank subordinate to the rank of lieutenant general and senior to the ranks of brigadier and brigadier general
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1st Infantry Division (United Kingdom)
The 1st Infantry
Infantry
Division was a regular army infantry division of the British Army
British Army
with a very long history
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Robert Craufurd
Major-General
Major-General
Robert Craufurd
Robert Craufurd
(5 May 1764 – 23 January 1812) was a British soldier. After a military career which took him from India to the Netherlands, he was given command of the Light Division in the Napoleonic Peninsular War
Peninsular War
under the Duke of Wellington. Craufurd was a strict disciplinarian and somewhat prone to violent mood swings which earned him the nickname "Black Bob". He was mortally wounded storming the lesser breach in the Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo
Ciudad Rodrigo
on 19 January 1812 and died four days later. Craufurd was born at Newark, Ayrshire, the third son of Sir Alexander Craufurd, 1st Baronet (see Craufurd Baronets),[1] and the younger brother of Sir Charles Craufurd
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Brigadier General
Brigadier
Brigadier
general (Brig. Gen.) is a senior rank in the armed forces. It is the lowest ranking general officer in some countries, usually sitting between the ranks of colonel and major general. When appointed to a field command, a brigadier general is typically in command of a brigade consisting of around 4,000 troops (four battalions). In some countries a brigadier general is informally designated as a one-star general (OF-6). In some countries, this rank is given the name of brigadier, which is often considered not to be a general-officer rank, but is usually equivalent to brigadier general in the armies of nations that use the rank. The rank can be traced back to the militaries of Europe where a brigadier general, or simply a brigadier, would command a brigade in the field
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Coimbra
Coimbra
Coimbra
(Portuguese pronunciation: [kuˈĩbɾɐ, ˈkwĩbɾɐ]; Proto-Celtic: *Corumbriga)[1]) is a city and a municipality in Portugal. The population at the 2011 census was 143,397,[2] in an area of 319.40 square kilometres (123.3 sq mi).[3] The fourth-largest urban centre in Portugal
Portugal
(after Lisbon, Porto, Braga), it is the largest city of the district of Coimbra, the Centro region and the Baixo Mondego
Baixo Mondego
subregion. About 460,000 people live in the Região de Coimbra, comprising 19 municipalities and extending into an area 4,336 square kilometres (1,674 sq mi). Among the many archaeological structures dating back to the Roman era, when Coimbra
Coimbra
was the settlement of Aeminium, are its well-preserved aqueduct and cryptoporticus
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Lisbon
Lisbon
Lisbon
(/ˈlɪzbən/; Portuguese: Lisboa, IPA: [liʒˈboɐ] ( listen))[3] is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700[4] within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km².[5] Its urban area extends beyond the city's administrative limits with a population of around 2.7 million people, being the 11th-most populous urban area in the European Union.[1] About 3 million people live in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area
Lisbon Metropolitan Area
(which represents approximately 27% of the country's population).[2] It is continental Europe's westernmost capital city and the only one along the Atlantic coast. Lisbon
Lisbon
lies in the western Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
on the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and the River Tagus
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General Of Division
Divisional general is a rank of general in command of a division. Examples would include the Spanish general de división, the French général de division and the Polish generał dywizji. For convenience such ranks are often translated into English as "major-general", the equivalent rank used by most English-speaking nations. The corresponding NATO code is OF-7, or a "two-star rank". Some countries of Latin America such as Brazil and Chile use divisional general as the equivalent of "lieutenant-general". This corresponding NATO code is OF-8, or a "three-star rank" for these countries. In Japan and Taiwan the rank of lieutenant-general is equivalent to divisional general.Contents1 Description 2 Bosnia 3 Brazil 4 France 5 Italy 6 Mexico 7 Poland 8 Spain 9 Switzerland 10 Serbia and Yugoslavia 11 References 12 See alsoDescription[edit] The rank is mostly used in countries where it is used as a modern alternative to a previous older rank of major-general
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Reverse Slope
A reverse slope defence is a military tactic where a defending force is positioned on the slope of an elevated terrain feature such as a hill, ridge, or mountain, on the side opposite from the attacking force.[1] This tactic hinders both the attacker's ability to observe the defender's positions as well as reducing the effectiveness of the attacker's long-range weapons such as tanks and artillery. A defending unit usually does not conduct a reverse-slope defence along its entire front, as positioning troops on the forward slope is necessary to control the region in front of the hill. However, when enemy forces are known to have superior long-range direct-fire or indirect-fire weapons, the majority of the defending force can use the hill to limit enemy observation and reduce the effectiveness of said long-range enemy fire. This tactic may even succeed in deceiving the enemy as to the true location and organisation of the main defensive positions
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Marshal Of France
Marshal of France (French: Maréchal de France, plural Maréchaux de France) is a French military distinction, rather than a military rank, that is awarded to generals for exceptional achievements. The title has been awarded since 1185, though briefly abolished (1793–1804) and briefly dormant (1870–1916) during its centuries of existence. It was one of the Great Officers of the Crown of France
Great Officers of the Crown of France
during the Ancien Régime
Ancien Régime
and Bourbon Restoration, and one of the Grand Dignitaries of the Empire during the First French Empire
First French Empire
(when the title was Marshal of the Empire, not Marshal of France). A Marshal of France displays seven stars on each shoulder strap. A marshal also receives a baton: a blue cylinder with stars, formerly fleurs-de-lis during the monarchy and eagles during the First French Empire
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Serra Do Bussaco
Serra do Buçaco
Serra do Buçaco
(formerly Bussaco) is a mountain range in Portugal, formerly included in the province of Beira Litoral.[1][2] The highest point in the range is the Cruz Alta at 549 m (1801 feet), which has views over the Serra da Estrela, the Mondego River
Mondego River
valley and the Atlantic Ocean. The Serra includes the buildings of a secularized Carmelite
Carmelite
monastery, founded in 1628. The convent woods have long been known for their cypress, plane, evergreen oak, cork and other forest trees, many of which have stood for centuries and attained an immense size. A bull of Pope Gregory XV
Pope Gregory XV
(1623), anathematizing trespassers and forbidding women to approach, is inscribed on a tablet at the main entrance; another bull, of Pope Urban VIII
Pope Urban VIII
(1643), threatens with excommunication any person harming the trees
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Serra Do Buçaco
Serra do Buçaco (formerly Bussaco) is a mountain range in Portugal, formerly included in the province of Beira Litoral.[1][2] The highest point in the range is the Cruz Alta at 549 m (1801 feet), which has views over the Serra da Estrela, the Mondego River valley and the Atlantic Ocean. The Serra includes the buildings of a secularized Carmelite monastery, founded in 1628. The convent woods have long been known for their cypress, plane, evergreen oak, cork and other forest trees, many of which have stood for centuries and attained an immense size. A bull of Pope Gregory XV (1623), anathematizing trespassers and forbidding women to approach, is inscribed on a tablet at the main entrance; another bull, of Pope Urban VIII (1643), threatens with excommunication any person harming the trees
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Battle Of Fuentes De Oñoro
Fuentes may refer to: People[edit] Fuentes (surname)Places[edit]Fort Fuentes, near Colico, province of Lecco, Lombardy, Italy Fuentes de Ebro, in the province of Zaragoza, Aragón Fuentes Calientes, in the province of Teruel, Aragón Fuentes Claras, in the province of Teruel, Aragón
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