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Battle Of Shubra Khit
The Battle of Shubra Khit
Shubra Khit
(also known as the Battle of Chobrakit) was a battle that took place during Napoleon's campaign in Egypt on July 13, 1798. On their march to Cairo, the French encountered Mamluk cavalry under Murad Bey. Napoleon lined his forces up into infantry squares, a tactic which helped defeat the Mamluk
Mamluk
cavalry, largely due to their inability to penetrate them without severe casualties[3].Contents1 Land 2 Naval 3 References 4 SourcesLand[edit] To repulse the Mamluk
Mamluk
cavalry, which heavily outnumbered the French cavalry, the French formed their divisions up in rectangles. Formed up out of infantry six to ten ranks deep, the rectangles had a small group of cavalry and baggage in the center, with artillery at each corner.[4] For about the first three hours, the Mamelukes circled the rectangles, looking for a place to attack
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Fellahin
Fellah
Fellah
(Arabic: فلاح‎, fallāḥ; plural Fellaheen or Fellahin, Arabic: فلاحين‎, fallāḥīn) is a farmer or agricultural laborer in the Middle East
Middle East
and North Africa. The word derives from the Arabic word for "ploughman" or "tiller". Due to a continuity in beliefs and lifestyle, the fellahin of Egypt have been described as the "true Egyptians".[1] A fellah could be seen wearing a simple cotton robe called galabieh (jellabiya)
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Egypt Eyalet
^ b. Figures are taken from the Populstat.info website.The Eyalet of Egypt was the result of the conquest of Mamluk Egypt by the Ottoman Empire in 1517, following the Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–1517) and the absorption of Syria into the Empire in 1516.[2] Egypt was administered as an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت مصر‎‎ Eyālet-i Mıṣr)[3] from 1517 until 1867, with an interruption during the French occupation of 1798 to 1801. Egypt was always a difficult province for the Ottoman Sultans to control, due in part to the continuing power and influence of the Mamluks, the Egyptian military caste who had ruled the country for centuries
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Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire (/ˈɒtəmən/; Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye[dn 5]), also historically known in Western Europe
Europe
as the Turkish Empire[8] or simply Turkey,[9] was a state that controlled much of southeastern Europe, western Asia and northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia
Anatolia
in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman.[10] After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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First French Republic
In the history of France, the First Republic
Republic
(French: Première République), officially the French Republic
Republic
(République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution. The First Republic
Republic
lasted until the declaration of the First Empire in 1804 under Napoleon, although the form of the government changed several times
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Mamluks
Mamluk
Mamluk
(Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garb
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Mamluk
Mamluk
Mamluk
(Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves
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Infantry Square
Historically an infantry square, also known as a hollow square, is a combat formation an infantry unit forms in close order usually when threatened with cavalry attack.[1] With the development of modern firearms and the demise of cavalry this formation is now considered obsolete.Contents1 Early History 2 Forming square 3 Breaking a square 4 Later use4.1 European colonial use 4.2 Use outside Europe5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksEarly History[edit] The formation was described by Plutarch[2] and used by the Romans, and was developed from an earlier circular formation.[citation needed] In particular, a large infantry square was utilized by the Roman legions at the Battle of Carrhae
Battle of Carrhae
against Parthia, whose armies contained a large proportion of cavalry
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French Revolutionary Wars
 Holy Roman Empire Austria[note 1]  Prussia
Prussia
(1792–95)[note 2]   Great Britain
Great Britain
(1793–1800)[note 3]
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Cairo, Egypt
Cairo
Cairo
(/ˈkaɪroʊ/ KYE-roh; Arabic: القاهرة‎ Al-Qāhirah,  pronunciation (help·info)) is the capital city of Egypt. The city's metropolitan area is the largest in the Middle East
Middle East
and the Arab world, and the 15th-largest in the world, and is associated with ancient Egypt, as the famous Giza pyramid complex
Giza pyramid complex
and the ancient city of Memphis are located in its geographical area. Located near the Nile Delta,[3][4] modern Cairo
Cairo
was founded in 969 CE by the Fatimid dynasty, but the land composing the present-day city was the site of ancient national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo. Cairo
Cairo
has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life, and is titled "the city of a thousand minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture
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Siege Of Alexandria
Alexandria
Alexandria
(/ˌælɪɡˈzændriə/ or /-ˈzɑːnd-/;[3] Arabic: الإسكندرية al-ʾIskandariyya; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية Eskendria; Coptic: Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ, Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ Alexandria, Rakotə) is the second-largest city in Egypt
Egypt
and a major economic centre, extending about 32 km (20 mi) along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
in the north central part of the country. Its low elevation on the Nile delta
Nile delta
makes it highly vulnerable to rising sea levels. Alexandria
Alexandria
is an important industrial center because of its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez. Alexandria
Alexandria
is also a popular tourist destination. Alexandria
Alexandria
was founded around a small, ancient Egyptian town c. 331 BC by Alexander the Great
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Battle Of Alexandria
The Battle of Alexandria
Alexandria
or Battle of Canope, fought on 21 March 1801 between the French army under General Menou
General Menou
and the British expeditionary corps under Sir Ralph Abercrombie, took place near the ruins of Nicopolis, on the narrow spit of land between the sea and Lake Abukir, along which the British troops had advanced towards Alexandria
Alexandria
after the actions of Abukir
Abukir
on 8 March and Mandora on 13 March.Contents1 Prelude 2 Battle 3 Aftermath 4 See also 5 ReferencesPrelude[edit] The British position on the night of 20 March extended across the isthmus, the right wing resting upon the ruins of Nicopolis and the sea, the left on the lake of Abukir
Abukir
and the Alexandria
Alexandria
canal
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Battle Of Mandora
The Battle of Mandora
Battle of Mandora
was fought on 13 March 1801 between the French Armée d'Orient and the British expeditionary corps, during the French campaign in Egypt
Egypt
and Syria.Contents1 Background 2 Battle 3 Aftermath 4 ReferencesBackground[edit] The British corps, under the command of Lieutenant-General Sir Ralph Abercromby, had been sent to Egypt
Egypt
to remove the French garrison from the region, following Napoleon's departure in August 1799. On 1 March 1801, the British corps, originally consisting of 15,300 men but much affected by disease, carried by a fleet of 175 ships, arrived at the natural harbour of Abu Qir, (known to the British as "Aboukir Bay"), some 23 kilometres (14 miles) from the port city of Alexandria
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