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Battle Of Cape Espartel
The Battle of Cape Spartel
Cape Spartel
(Cabo Espartel in Spanish) was a naval battle of the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
that broke the Republican blockade of the Strait of Gibraltar, securing the maritime supply route to Spanish Morocco
Morocco
for the Nationalists early in the war. The action occurred on September 29, 1936 between two Nationalist cruisers and two Republican destroyers.Contents1 Background 2 The battle 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksBackground[edit] The rebels at Ferrol, Galicia, had been able to seize the city's naval base in July, but at a large cost: over 30 mutinous officers had been shot by hundreds of sailors loyal to the Republic. Their prize included the old battleship España (formerly Alfonso XIII), the cruisers Almirante Cervera and the unfinished Canarias, two light cruisers, one destroyer, and a number of torpedo boats and sloops
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Tangier
Tangier
Tangier
(/tænˈdʒɪər/; Arabic: طَنجة‎ Ṭanjah; Berber: ⵟⴰⵏⴵⴰ Ṭanja; old Berber name: ⵜⵉⵏⴳⵉ Tingi; adapted to Latin: Tingis; French: Tanger; Spanish: Tánger; also called Tangiers in English) is a major city in northwestern Morocco. It is located on the Maghreb
Maghreb
coast at the western entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar, where the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
meets the Atlantic Ocean off Cape Spartel. The town is the capital of the Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima
Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima
region, as well as the Tangier-Assilah prefecture of Morocco. Many civilisations and cultures have impacted the history of Tangier starting from before the 5th century BC
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Morocco
Coordinates: 32°N 6°W / 32°N 6°W / 32; -6Kingdom of Moroccoالمملكة المغربية (Arabic) ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ (Berber)FlagCoat of armsMotto:  لله، الوطن، الملك  (Arabic) Allah, Al Watan, Al Malik ⴰⴽⵓⵛ, ⴰⵎⵓⵔ, ⴰⴳⵍⵍⵉⴷ (Berber)"God, Homeland, King"Anthem:  النشيد الوطني المغربي  (Arabic) ⵉⵣⵍⵉ ⴰⵏⴰⵎⵓⵔ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ  (Berber) Cherifian AnthemDark green: Internationally recognized territory of Morocco. Lighter green: Western Sahara, a territory claimed and mostly controlled by Morocco
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Spain
Coordinates: 40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4Kingdom of Spain Reino de España  (Spanish)6 other official names[a][b]Aragonese: Reino d'EspanyaAsturian: Reinu d'EspañaBasque: Espainiako ErresumaCatalan: Regne d'EspanyaGalician: Reino de EspañaOccitan: Reiaume d'EspanhaFlagCoat of armsMotto: "Plus Ultra" (Latin) "Further Beyond"Anthem: "Marcha Real" (Spanish)[2] "Royal March"Location of  Spain  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Capital and largest city Madrid 40°26′N 3°42′W / 40.433°N 3.700°W / 40.433; -3.700Official language and national language Spanish[c]Co-official languages in certain autonomous communities Catalan Galician Basque OccitanEthnic groups (2015)89.9% Spanish 10.1% othersReligi
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Second Spanish Republic
The Spanish Republic (Spanish: República Española), commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic
Second Spanish Republic
(Spanish: Segunda República Española) was the democratic regime that existed in Spain
Spain
from 1931 to 1939. The Republic was proclaimed on 14 April 1931, after the abdication of Alfonso XIII, and it lost the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
on 1 April 1939 to the Nationalist side, who would establish a military dictatorship under the rule of Francisco Franco. After the proclamation of the Republic, a provisional government was established until December 1931, when the 1931 Constitution was approved and the Republic formally established. The republican government of Manuel Azaña
Manuel Azaña
would start a great number of reforms to "modernize" the country
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Francoist Spain
Francoist Spain refers to the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War establishing a dictatorship, and 1975, when Franco died and Prince Juan Carlos was crowned King of Spain. During the Second World War, its entry into the war on the Axis side was prevented largely by British Secret Intelligence Service (MI-6) efforts that included up to $200 million in bribes for Spanish officials.[2] Spain nevertheless helped Germany and Italy in various ways. After the war Franco's regime evolved into a more classic autocratic regime.[unreliable source?][3] The Spanish Civil War started as a coup by the Spanish military on the peninsula (peninsulares) and in Spanish Morocco (africanistas) on 17 July 1936.[4] The coup had the support of most factions sympathetic to the right-wing cause in Spain, including the majority of Spain's Catholic clergy, the Falange and the Alfonsine and Carlist monarchists
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Background Of The Spanish Civil War
The background of the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
dates back to the end of the 19th century, when the owners of large estates, called latifundia, held most of the power in a land-based oligarchy. The landowners' power was unsuccessfully challenged by the industrial and merchant sectors. In 1868 popular uprisings led to the overthrow of Queen Isabella II of the House of Bourbon. In 1873 Isabella's replacement, King Amadeo I of the House of Savoy, abdicated due to increasing political pressure, and the short-lived First Spanish Republic
First Spanish Republic
was proclaimed. After the restoration of the Bourbons in December 1874, Carlists
Carlists
and anarchists emerged in opposition to the monarchy. Alejandro Lerroux
Alejandro Lerroux
helped bring republicanism to the fore in Catalonia, where poverty was particularly acute
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Strait Of Gibraltar
The Strait
Strait
of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
(Arabic: مضيق جبل طارق‎, Spanish: Estrecho de Gibraltar) is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
and separates Gibraltar
Gibraltar
and Peninsular Spain
Spain
in Europe
Europe
from Morocco
Morocco
and Ceuta
Ceuta
(Spain) in Africa. The name comes from the Rock of Gibraltar, which in turn originates from the Arabic
Arabic
Jebel Tariq (meaning "Tariq's mountain"[1]) named after Tariq ibn Ziyad. It is also known as the Straits of Gibraltar, the Gut of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
(although this is mostly archaic),[2] the STROG ( Strait
Strait
Of Gibraltar) in naval use,[3] and Bab Al Maghrib (Arabic: باب المغرب‎), "Gate of the West"
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Battle Of Ciudad Universitaria
A battle is a combat in warfare between two or more armed forces, or combatants. A war sometimes consists of many battles. Battles generally are well defined in duration, area, and force commitment.[1] A battle with only limited engagement between the forces and without decisive results is sometimes called a skirmish. Wars and military campaigns are guided by strategy, whereas battles take place on a level of planning and execution known as operational mobility.[2] German strategist Carl von Clausewitz
Carl von Clausewitz
stated that "the employment of battles ..
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Spanish Civil War
Nationalist victoryEnd of the Second Spanish Republic Establishment of a military dictatorship under the rule of Francisco FrancoBelligerents Republicans Spanish Republican Army Popular Front CNT-FAI UGT Generalitat de Catalunya Euzko Gudarostea
Euzko Gudarostea
(1936–37)Supported by:Communist International  Soviet Union  Mexico International Brigades Nationalists FET y de las JONS (from 1937) FE de la JONS (1936–37) CT (1936–37) CEDA (1936–37) RE (1936–37)Supporte
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First Battle Of The Corunna Road
The First Battle of the Corunna Road took place between 29 November and 3 December 1936 during the Spanish Civil War. The Nationalists tried to isolate Madrid
Madrid
from the west, cutting the Corunna Road, but the Republican army repelled the attack.Contents1 Background 2 The battle 3 Aftermath 4 ReferencesBackground[edit] After the failure to take Madrid
Madrid
in November 1936 and the failure to reduce the morale of the city's population through aerial bombing, Franco decided to encircle the city from the north-west in order to cut off water and electricity supplies from the Sierra de Guadarrama. Franco's Nationalists, led by Varela, concentrated a force of 3,000 men supported by heavy artillery including Ju-52 bombers
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Battle Of Talavera De La Reina (1936)
The Battle of Talavera de la Reina was fought on 3 September 1936 in the Spanish Civil War. The Republicans, attempting to bar the road to Madrid
Madrid
at Talavera de la Reina, were defeated by the professional army of the Nationalists, with heavy casualties on both sides. In the first days of September, after a fitful retreat along the Tagus, the government militias established themselves in a strong position on the heights above Talavera. Rather than risk the Republic's army defending open country in earlier battles, General Riquelme had yielded ground constantly, allowing him to conserve his forces and muster over 10,000 men at Talavera. A strong complement of artillery and an armoured train were placed at his disposal. The weary and shot-torn Nationalists, meanwhile, had advanced several hundred miles with hardly a moment's pause. At dawn on 3 September General Yagüe raced Colonel Asensio and Major Castejón up the flanks of the defenders
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Battle Of Irún
The Battle of Irún was the critical battle of the Campaign of Gipuzkoa prior to the War in the North, during the Spanish Civil War. The Nationalist Army, under Alfonso Beorlegui, captured the city of Irún cutting off the northern provinces of Gipuzkoa, Biscay, Santander, and Asturias from their source of arms and support in France.Contents1 Background 2 The battle 3 Notes 4 SourcesBackground[edit] Irún is located on the northeastern coast of Spain, between the French border and the city of San Sebastian
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Siege Of Santuario De Nuestra Señora De La Cabeza
The Siege of Santuario de Nuestra Señora de la Cabeza took place from 14 September 1936 to 1 May 1937 in Andújar, Jaén, during the Spanish Civil War. The Republican army surrounded around 1,200 rebel civil guards and falangists who supported the Nationalists and forced them to surrender after a protracted offensive.Contents1 Background. 2 The siege 3 Aftermath 4 Footnotes 5 References 6 External linksBackground.[edit] After the failed coup of July 1936 in Andalusia, many groups of rebel civil guards retreated from their garrisons to hilltops, monasteries and others easily defensible points, living by robbing from the neighborhood
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Battle Of Cerro Muriano
The Battle of Cerro Muriano
Battle of Cerro Muriano
took place during the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
in 1936.Contents1 Location 2 History 3 See also 4 ReferencesLocation[edit] Cerro Muriano is a village currently within the municipal terms of Córdoba and Obejo
Obejo
in the Province of Córdoba. History[edit] The battle followed the August Córdoba offensive and lasted two days, 5 and 6 September 1936
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Battle Of Seseña
The Battle of Seseña
Seseña
was an ill-fated Republican assault on the Nationalist stronghold of Seseña, near Toledo, 30 km south of Madrid
Madrid
in October 1936 during the Spanish Civil War. After the fall of Talavera de la Reina and Toledo in September 1936, the Nationalist troops pushed towards Madrid
Madrid
and in October they were 30 km from Madrid. Then the Republican government which had received new Russian weapons decided to launch a counteroffensive in order to stop the Nationalist offensive at Seseña. The attack failed and the Nationalists resumed their advance towards Madrid
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