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Batch File
A BATCH FILE is a kind of script file in DOS
DOS
, OS/2
OS/2
and Microsoft Windows . It consists of a series of commands to be executed by the command-line interpreter , stored in a plain text file. A batch file may contain any command the interpreter accepts interactively and use constructs that enable conditional branching and looping within the batch file, such as IF , FOR , and GOTO
GOTO
labels . The term "batch" is from batch processing , meaning "non-interactive execution", though a batch file may not process a batch of multiple data. Similar to Job Control Language (JCL) and other systems on mainframe and minicomputer systems, batch files were added to ease the work required for certain regular tasks by allowing the user to set up a script to automate them
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Media Type
A MEDIA TYPE (also MIME TYPE and CONTENT TYPE) is a two-part identifier for file formats and format contents transmitted on the Internet
Internet
. The Internet
Internet
Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is the official authority for the standardization and publication of these classifications. Media types were originally defined in Request for Comments 2045 in November 1996 as a part of MIME (Multipurpose Internet
Internet
Mail Extensions) specification, for denoting type of email message content and attachments; hence the name MIME type. Media types are also used by other internet protocols such as HTTP
HTTP
and document file formats such as HTML
HTML
, for similar purpose
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Graphical User Interface
The GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE (GUI /ɡuːiː/ ), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces , typed command labels or text navigation. GUIs were introduced in reaction to the perceived steep learning curve of command-line interfaces (CLIs), which require commands to be typed on a computer keyboard . The actions in a GUI are usually performed through direct manipulation of the graphical elements. Beyond computers, GUIs are used in many handheld mobile devices such as MP3
MP3
players, portable media players, gaming devices, smartphones and smaller household, office and industrial controls
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Windows 3.1x
WINDOWS 3.1X (codenamed Janus) is a series of 16-bit operating environments produced by Microsoft
Microsoft
for use on personal computers. The series began with Windows 3.1, which was first sold during April 1992 as a successor to Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
. Subsequent versions were released between 1992 and 1994 until the series was superseded by Windows 95
Windows 95
. During its lifespan, Windows 3.1 introduced several enhancements to the still MS-DOS
MS-DOS
–based platform, including improved system stability, expanded support for multimedia, TrueType
TrueType
fonts , and workgroup networking . Windows 3.1 was originally released on April 6, 1992; official support for Windows 3.1 ended on December 31, 2001, and OEM licensing for Windows for Workgroups 3.11 on embedded systems continued to be available until November 1, 2008
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Line Feed
In computing , a NEWLINE, also known as a LINE ENDING, END OF LINE (EOL), or LINE BREAK, is a special character or sequence of characters signifying the end of a line of text and the start of a new line. The actual codes representing a newline vary across operating systems, which can be a problem when exchanging text files between systems with different newline representations. The concepts of LINE FEED (LF) and CARRIAGE RETURN (CR) are closely associated, and can be considered either separately or together. In the physical media of typewriters and printers , two axes of motion, "down" and "across", are needed to create a new line on the page . Although the design of a machine (typewriter or printer) must consider them separately, the abstract logic of software can combine them together as one event. This is why a newline in character encoding can be defined as LF and CR combined into one (known variously as CR+LF, CRLF, LF+CR, or LFCR)
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UNC Path
A PATH, the general form of the name of a file or directory , specifies a unique location in a file system . A path points to a file system location by following the directory tree hierarchy expressed in a string of characters in which path components, separated by a delimiting character, represent each directory. The delimiting character is most commonly the slash ("/"), the backslash character (""), or colon (":"), though some operating systems may use a different delimiter . Paths are used extensively in computer science to represent the directory/file relationships common in modern operating systems, and are essential in the construction of Uniform Resource Locators (URLs). Resources can be represented by either absolute or relative paths
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Windows NT
WINDOWS NT is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft
Microsoft
, the first version of which was released in July 1993. It is a processor-independent, multiprocessing , multi-user operating system. The first version of Windows NT
Windows NT
was Windows NT 3.1 and was produced for workstations and server computers . It was intended to complement consumer versions of Windows (including Windows 1.0 through Windows 3.1x ) that were based on MS-DOS . Gradually, the Windows NT
Windows NT
family was expanded into Microsoft's general-purpose operating system product line for all personal computers , deprecating the Windows 9x family. "NT" formerly expanded to "New Technology" but no longer carries any specific meaning. Starting with Windows 2000 , "NT" was removed from the product name and is only included in the product version string
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User Account Control
USER ACCOUNT CONTROL (UAC) is a technology and security infrastructure introduced with Microsoft
Microsoft
's Windows Vista
Windows Vista
and Windows Server 2008
Windows Server 2008
operating systems , with a more relaxed version also present in Windows 7
Windows 7
, Windows Server 2008
Windows Server 2008
R2 , Windows 8
Windows 8
, Windows Server 2012
Windows Server 2012
and Windows 10
Windows 10
. It aims to improve the security of Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows by limiting application software to standard user privileges until an administrator authorizes an increase or elevation. In this way, only applications trusted by the user may receive administrative privileges, and malware should be kept from compromising the operating system
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4OS2
4OS2 is the OS/2
OS/2
analogue of 4NT and 4DOS by JP Software , Inc. JP Software discontinued 4OS2, TCMDOS2 and TCMD16 , making version 3.0, 2.0, 2.0 the final version of these. The code for 4OS2 has been released, and is maintained, first by SciTech , and then by NetLabs . JP Software have their final releases of these products at their download page. There was a 4OS2 v4.0 as different programmers took up maintaining the release, but these have been since merged. 4OS2 has found more recent life at NetLabs. Early versions of 4OS2 run in the Windows NT OS/2
OS/2
emulation, and it was this particular running that lead JP Software to port 4OS2 to Windows
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Windows 9x
WINDOWS 9X is a generic term referring to a series of Microsoft Windows computer operating systems produced from 1995 to 2000, which were based on the Windows 95 kernel and its underlying foundation of MS-DOS
MS-DOS
, both of which were updated in subsequent versions. This includes all versions of Windows 95 and Windows 98 . Windows ME is sometimes included. Windows 9x
Windows 9x
is predominantly known for its use in desktops . In 1998, Windows made up 82% of operating system market share. Internal release versions for versions of Windows 9x
Windows 9x
are 4.x. Previous MS-DOS
MS-DOS
based versions of Windows used version numbers of 3.2 or lower . Windows NT
Windows NT
, which was aimed at professional users such as networks and businesses, used a similar but separate version number between 3.1 and 4.0
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IBM
IBM
IBM
(INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York , United States
United States
, with operations in over 170 countries. The company originated in 1911 as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company
Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company
(CTR) and was renamed "International Business
Business
Machines" in 1924. IBM
IBM
manufactures and markets computer hardware , middleware and software , and offers hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology . IBM
IBM
is also a major research organization, holding the record for most patents generated by a business (as of 2017) for 24 consecutive years
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Carriage Return
A CARRIAGE RETURN, sometimes known as a CARTRIDGE RETURN and often shortened to CR, or RETURN, is a control character or mechanism used to reset a device's position to the beginning of a line of text. It is closely associated with the line feed and newline concepts, although it can be considered separately in its own right. CONTENTS * 1 Typewriters * 2 Computers * 3 See also * 4 References TYPEWRITERSOriginally, the term "carriage return" referred to a mechanism or lever on a typewriter . For machines where the type element was fixed and the paper held in a moving carriage, this lever was operated after typing a line of text to cause the carriage to return to the far right so the type element would be aligned to the left side of the paper. The lever would also usually feed the paper to advance to the next line. Many electric typewriters such as IBM Electric or Underwood Electric made carriage return to be another key on the keyboard instead of a lever
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Microsoft Notepad
NOTEPAD is a simple text editor for Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows
and a basic text-editing program which enables computer users to create documents. It was first released as a mouse -based MS-DOS
MS-DOS
program in 1983, and has been included in all versions of Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows
since Windows 1.0 in 1985. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Features * 3 Unicode
Unicode
detections * 4 Competing software * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORY Microsoft
Microsoft
introduced MULTI-TOOL NOTEPAD, a mouse -based text editor written by Richard Brodie , with the $195 Microsoft Mouse in May 1983 at the Spring COMDEX computer expo in Atlanta
Atlanta

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Word Processor
A WORD PROCESSOR is an electronic device or computer software application , that performs the task of composing, editing, formatting, and printing of documents. The word processor was a stand-alone office machine in the 1960s, combining the keyboard text-entry and printing functions of an electric typewriter , with a recording unit, either tape or floppy disk (as used by the Wang machine) with a simple dedicated computer processor for the editing of text. Although features and designs varied among manufacturers and models, and new features were added as technology advanced, word processors typically featured a monochrome display and the ability to save documents on memory cards or diskettes . Later models introduced innovations such as spell-checking programs, and improved formatting options
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Take Command (command Line Interpreter)
TAKE COMMAND was the name that JP Software
Software
used for their GUI command-line interpreters for Windows 3.1 (TC16), Windows 32-bit (TC32) and later OS/2
OS/2
Presentation Manager (TCOS2). These were released concurrently with version 4DOS 5.5, 4NT 2.5 and 4OS2 2.52. The OS/2
OS/2
and Windows 16-bit survived until version 2.02, they are still available for download from the FTP site on JP Software. Beginning with version 9, the name TAKE COMMAND was applied to an entirely different assembly of products: TCI (Tabbed Command Interface) and 4NT. The original Take Command is no longer being developed. TCI was expanded to include a file manager and various other windows, while 4NT was renamed TCC, and issued in "light" form. TAKE COMMAND is a command-line interpreter for the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems
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Windows ME
WINDOWS MILLENNIUM EDITION, or WINDOWS ME (marketed with the pronunciation of the pronoun "me", but commonly pronounced as an initialism , "M-E"), is a graphical operating system from Microsoft released to manufacturing in June 2000, and launched in September 2000. It was the last operating system released in the Windows 9x series. Windows ME
Windows ME
was the successor to Windows 98
Windows 98
and was targeted specifically at home PC users. It included Internet Explorer 5.5 , Windows Media Player 7, and the new Windows Movie Maker software, which provided basic video editing and was designed to be easy to use for home users
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