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Bassett Letter
The Bassett Letter was a letter dated 8 February 1918 from the British Government to Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca, following Hussein's request for an explanation of the Sykes-Picot Agreement. It was delivered by Lieutenant colonel J. R. Bassett, Acting British Agent at Jeddah, who was forwarding a message he had received by telegram from the Foreign Office in London. The letter dismissed the publication of the Sykes-Picot Agreement
Sykes-Picot Agreement
as an attempt by the Ottoman Empire to create mistrust between the Arabs and Britain during the Arab Revolt. It was a formal message to support a telegram sent a few days previously to Hussein by Reginald Wingate, High Commissioner in Egypt. The preface to the Bassett Letter noted that Wingate had directed the sending of the Letter.Contents1 The letter 2 Bibliography 3 See also 4 ReferencesThe letter[edit] The letter was written in Arabic
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Hussein Bin Ali, Sharif Of Mecca
Hussein ibn Ali
Ali
al-Hashimi (Arabic: الحسين بن علي الهاشمي‎, al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī al-Hāshimī; 1853/1854 – 4 June 1931) was a Hashemite
Hashemite
Arab
Arab
leader who was the Sharif and Emir of Mecca
Sharif and Emir of Mecca
from 1908 and, after proclaiming the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire, King of the Hejaz
King of the Hejaz
from 1916 to 1924. At the end of his reign he also briefly laid claim to the office of Caliph. He was a 37th-generation direct descendant of Muhammad
Muhammad
as he belongs to the Hashemite
Hashemite
family. A member of the Awn clan of the Qatadid emirs of Mecca, he was perceived to have rebellious inclinations and in 1893 was summoned to Constantinople
Constantinople
where he was kept on the Council of State
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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MacDonald Letter
The MacDonald Letter of 1931, also known as the Black Letter, was a letter from Ramsay MacDonald, head of the British Labour Party, to Chaim Weizmann, prominent Zionist leader, in response to the Passfield White Paper. The White Paper limited Jewish immigration to Palestine and Jewish purchase of Arab land. Zionists organizations worldwide mounted a vigorous campaign against the document, which culminated in MacDonald's "clarification" of the White Paper, reaffirming British support for the continuation of Jewish immigration and land purchase in Palestine.[1] It was considered a withdrawal of the Passfield White Paper, despite the fact that Prime Minister said in parliament on 11 February 1931 that he was "very unwilling to give the letter the same status as the dominating document" i.e. the Passfield White Paper
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Palestinian Citizenship Order, 1925
The Palestinian Citizenship Order in Council, 1925[1][2][3] was a law of Mandatory Palestine
Mandatory Palestine
governing the giving of citizenship to the population of the state. It was announced on 24 July 1925 and came into force on 1 August 1925. The law was required by Article 7 of the British Mandate for Palestine (legal instrument), which stated: "The Administration of Palestine shall be responsible for enacting a nationality law
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Timeline Of The Israeli–Palestinian Conflict
This timeline of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Israeli–Palestinian conflict
lists events from 1948 to the present. The Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Israeli–Palestinian conflict
emerged from intercommunal violence in Mandatory Palestine
Mandatory Palestine
between Palestinian Jews and Arabs, often described as the background to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict
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Mandatory Palestine
Mandatory Palestine[a][1] (Arabic: فلسطين‎ Filasṭīn; Hebrew: .mw-parser-output .script-hebrew,.mw-parser-output .script-Hebr font-size:1.15em;font-family:"Ezra SIL","Ezra SIL SR","Keter Aram Tsova","Taamey Ashkenaz","Taamey David CLM","Taamey Frank CLM","Frank Ruehl CLM","Keter YG","Shofar","David CLM","Hadasim CLM","Simple CLM","Nachlieli","SBL BibLit","SBL Hebrew",Cardo,Alef,"Noto Serif Hebrew","Noto Sans Hebrew","David Libre",David,"Times New Roman",Gisha,Arial,FreeSerif,FreeSans פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י) Pālēśtīnā (EY), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity established between 1920 and 1923 in the Middle East
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1948 Arab–Israeli War
 IsraelBefore 26 May 1948:Haganah Palmach Irgun LehiAfter 26 May 1948: Israel
Israel
Defense Forces Minorities UnitForeign volunteers: Mahal Arab League Egypt[1]  Jordan[1]  Iraq[1]  Syria[1]   Lebanon
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International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique.[a][b] Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-specific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book
Book
Numbering (SBN) created in 1966
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George Antonius
George Habib Antonius, CBE (hon.) (Arabic: جورج حبيب أنطونيوس‎; October 19, 1891 – May 21, 1942) was a Lebanese-Egyptian author and diplomat, settled in Jerusalem, one of the first historians of Arab nationalism. Born in Deir al Qamar
Deir al Qamar
in a Lebanese Eastern Orthodox Christian family, he served as a civil servant in the British Mandate of Palestine. His 1938 book The Arab Awakening generated an ongoing debate over such issues as the origins of Arab nationalism, the significance of the Arab Revolt
Arab Revolt
of 1916, and the machinations behind the post-World War I political settlement in the Middle East.Contents1 Career 2 Gallery 3 References 4 External linksCareer[edit] Antonius graduated from Cambridge University
Cambridge University
and joined the newly formed British Mandate Administration in Palestine as the deputy in the Education Department
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The Arab Awakening
The Arab Awakening is a 1938 book by George Antonius, published in London by Hamish Hamilton. It is viewed as the foundational textbook of the history of modern Arab nationalism. According to Martin Kramer, The Arab Awakening "became the preferred textbook for successive generations of British and American historians and their students".[1] It generated an ongoing debate over such issues as the origins of Arab nationalism, the significance of the Arab Revolt
Arab Revolt
of 1916, and the machinations behind the post- World War I
World War I
political settlement in the Middle East. Analysis[edit] Antonius traced Arab nationalism
Arab nationalism
to the reign of Muhammad Ali Pasha
Muhammad Ali Pasha
in Egypt
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Reginald Wingate
General
General
Sir Francis Reginald Wingate, 1st Baronet, GCB, GCVO, GBE, KCMG, DSO, TD (25 June 1861 – 29 January 1953) was a British general and administrator in Egypt
Egypt
and the Sudan. He earned the nom de guerre Wingate of the Sudan.Contents1 Early life 2 Military career 3 Administrative career 4 Legacy 5 Works 6 Footnotes 7 Bibliography 8 External linksEarly life[edit] Wingate was born at Port Glasgow, Renfrewshire (now Inverclyde), the seventh son of Andrew Wingate, a textile merchant of Glasgow, and Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Turner of Dublin
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Arab Revolt
Kingdom of Hejaz British Empire Southern Rhodesia  India France  Ottoman Empire German Empire Emirate of Jabal ShammarCommanders and leaders Hussein bin Ali Faisal Abdullah Edmund Allenby T. E
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Lieutenant Colonel
Lieutenant
Lieutenant
colonel is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies, most marine forces and some air forces of the world, above a major and below a colonel
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White Paper Of 1939
The White Paper of 1939[note 1] was a policy paper issued by the British government
British government
under Neville Chamberlain
Neville Chamberlain
in response to the 1936–39 Arab Revolt. Following its formal approval in the House of Commons on 23 May 1939,[2][note 2] it acted as the governing policy for Mandatory Palestine
Mandatory Palestine
from 1939 until the British departure in 1948, the matter of the Mandate meanwhile having been referred to the United Nations.[3] The policy, first drafted in March 1939, was prepared by the British government unilaterally as a result of the failure of the Arab-Zionist London Conference.[4] The paper called for the establishment of a Jewish national home in an independent Palestinian state within 10 years, rejecting the idea of partitioning Palestine
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Hope Simpson Enquiry
The Report on Immigration, Land Settlement and Development, commonly referred to as the Hope Simpson Enquiry
Hope Simpson Enquiry
or the Hope Simpson Report, was a British Commission managed by Sir
Sir
John Hope Simpson, established during August 1929 to address Immigration, Land Settlement and Development issues in British Mandate of Palestine, as recommended by the Shaw Commission, after the widespread 1929 Palestine riots. The report was dated October 1, 1930, but was released on October 21, 1930. The report recommended limiting Jewish immigration based on the economic absorptive capacity of Palestine
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