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Basilar Part Of The Pons
The basilar part of pons is the ventral part of the pons, the dorsal part is known as the pontine tegmentum Clinical significance[edit] Tissue death (infarction), in this region can impair motor functioning.[1] A lacunar stroke of the base of the pons is known to cause contralateral dysarthria-clumsy hand syndrome. The basis pontis undergoes demyelination in the condition known as central pontine myelinolysis. This condition is due to the rapid intravenous correction of hyponatremia. References[edit] This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 785 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy
Gray's Anatomy
(1918)^ Schmahmann JD, Ko R, MacMore J (June 2004). "The human basis pontis: motor syndromes and topographic organization". Brain. 127 (Pt 6): 1269–91. doi:10.1093/brain/awh138
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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General Somatic Afferent Fibers
The general somatic afferent fibers (GSA, or somatic sensory fibers) afferent fibers arise from cells in the spinal ganglia and are found in all the spinal nerves, except occasionally the first cervical, and conduct impulses of pain, touch and temperature from the surface of the body through the dorsal roots to the spinal cord and impulses of muscle sense, tendon sense and joint sense from the deeper structures. See also[edit]Afferent nerveReferences[edit] This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 849 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy
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Vestibulo-oculomotor Fibers
The vestibulo-oculomotor fibers are the portion of the medial longitudinal fasciculus which ascends to the oculomotor nucleus from the vestibular nuclei. See also[edit]Vestibulo-ocular reflexv t eAnatomy of the ponsDorsal/ (tegmentum)SurfaceCerebellopontine angle Superior medullary velum Sulcus limitans Medial eminence Facial colliculusWhite: SensoryTrapezoid body Trigeminal lemniscusDorsal trigeminal tract Ventral trigeminal tractMedial lemniscus Lateral lemniscusMedial longitudinal fasciculusVestibulo-oculomotor fibersAnterior trigeminothalamic tract Central tegmental tractWhite: MotorInferior cerebellar peduncleVestibulocerebellar tractMedial longitudinal fasciculusVestibulospinal tract Medial vestibulospinal tract Lateral vestibulospinal tractGrey: Cranial nucleiafferent:GSATrigeminalPrincipal SpinalCochlear nucleus<
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Central Tegmental Tract
The central tegmental tract[1] is a structure in the midbrain and pons.The central tegmental tract includes ascending axonal fibers that arise from the rostral nucleus solitarius and terminate in the ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM) of thalamus. Information from the thalamus will go to cortical taste area, namely the insula and frontal operculum. It also contains descending axonal fibers from the parvocellular red nucleus. The descending axons will project to the inferior olivary nucleus. This latter pathway (the rubro-olivary tract) will be used to connect the contralateral cerebellum.Lesion of the tract can cause palatal myoclonus, e.g. in myoclonic syndrome, in strokes of the Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery. Additional Images[edit]Horizontal section through the lower part of the pons. The central tegmental tract is labeled #16.References[edit]^ Kamali A, Kramer LA, Butler IJ, Hasan KM
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Inferior Cerebellar Peduncle
The upper part of the posterior district of the medulla oblongata is occupied by the inferior cerebellar peduncle, a thick rope-like strand situated between the lower part of the fourth ventricle and the roots of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves. Each cerebellar inferior peduncle connects the spinal cord and medulla oblongata with the cerebellum, and comprises the juxtarestiform body and restiform body. Important fibers running through the inferior cerebellar peduncle include the dorsal spinocerebellar tract and axons from the inferior olivary nucleus, among others.Contents1 Function 2 See also 3 Additional images 4 References 5 External linksFunction[edit] The inferior cerebellar peduncle carries many types of input and output fibers that are mainly concerned with integrating proprioceptive sensory input with motor vestibular functions such as balance and posture maintenance
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Vestibulocerebellar Tract
The vestibulocerebellar tract is a tract in the pontine tegmentum which connects the vestibular nerve and the cerebellar cortex
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Vestibulospinal Tract
The vestibulospinal tract is a neural tract in the central nervous system. Specifically, it is a component of the extrapyramidal system and is classified as a component of the medial pathway. Like other descending motor pathways, the vestibulospinal fibers of the tract relay information from nuclei to motor neurons.[1] The vestibular nuclei receive information through the vestibulocochlear nerve about changes in the orientation of the head. The nuclei relay motor commands through the vestibulospinal tract
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Medial Vestibulospinal Tract
The medial vestibulospinal tract is one of the descending spinal tracts of the ventromedial funiculus of the spinal cord. It is found only in the cervical spine and above. The medial part of the vestibulospinal tract is the smaller part, and is primarily made of fibers from the medial vestibular nucleus. It projects bilaterally down the spinal cord and triggers the ventral horn of the cervical spinal circuits, particularly controlling lower motor neurons associated with the spinal accessory nerve (CN XI). Additionally, the pathway projects superiorly to the paramedian pontine reticular formation, indirectly innervating the nuclei of CN VI and III. Through this superior projection, the medial vestibulospinal tract is involved in "yoking" the eyes together in response to rapid movement of the head
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Lateral Vestibulospinal Tract
The lateral vestibulospinal tract is one of the descending spinal tracts of the ventromedial funiculus. The lateral part of the vestibulospinal tract is the major portion and is composed of fibers originating in the lateral, superior, and inferior vestibular nuclei (primarily the lateral). It projects ipsilaterally down to the lumbar region of the spinal cord. There it helps to maintain an upright and balanced posture by stimulating extensor motor neurons in the legs. It also innervates muscles of the trunk, thus additionally aiding in body posture. The lateral vestibular nuclei receive input from cerebellum, particularly the vestibulocerebellum, or the flocculi and nodulus. The cerebellum aids in coordinating postural adjustments. See also[edit]Decerebrate posturingThis neuroscience article is a stub
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Grey Matter
Grey matter
Grey matter
(or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries. Grey matter is distinguished from white matter, in that it contains numerous cell bodies and relatively few myelinated axons, while white matter contains relatively few cell bodies and is composed chiefly of long-range myelinated axon tracts.[1] The colour difference arises mainly from the whiteness of myelin
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Cranial Nerve Nucleus
A cranial nerve nucleus is a collection of neurons (gray matter) in the brain stem that is associated with one or more cranial nerves. Axons carrying information to and from the cranial nerves form a synapse first at these nuclei. Lesions occurring at these nuclei can lead to effects resembling those seen by the severing of nerve(s) they are associated with. All the nuclei except that of the trochlear nerve (CN IV) supply nerves of the same side of the body.Contents1 Structure1.1 Motor and sensory 1.2 Location2 Location 3 References 4 Additional images 5 External linksStructure[edit] Motor and sensory[edit] In general, motor nuclei are closer to the front (ventral), and sensory nuclei and neurons are closer to the back (dorsal). This arrangement mirrors the arrangement of tracts in the spinal cord.Close to the midline are the motor efferent nuclei, such as the oculomotor nucleus, which control skeletal muscle
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Principal Sensory Nucleus Of Trigeminal Nerve
The principal sensory nucleus (or chief sensory nucleus of V) is a group of second order neurons which have cell bodies in the caudal pons. It receives information about discriminative sensation and light touch of the face as well as conscious proprioception of the jaw via first order neurons of CN V.Most of the sensory information crosses the midline and travels to the contralateral ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM) of the thalamus via the anterior trigeminothalamic tract. However, information of the oral cavity travels to the ipsilateral VPM of the thalamus via the dorsal trigeminothalamic tract.External links[edit]Brain stem nuclei (page at Washington University)v t eAnatomy of the ponsDorsal/ (tegmentum)SurfaceCerebellopontine angle Superior medullary velum Sulcus limitans Medial eminence Facial colliculusWhite: SensoryTrapezoid body Trigeminal lemniscusDorsal trigeminal tract Ventral trigeminal tract


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Lateral Lemniscus
The lateral lemniscus is a tract of axons in the brainstem that carries information about sound from the cochlear nucleus to various brainstem nuclei and ultimately the contralateral inferior colliculus of the midbrain. Three distinct, primarily inhibitory, cellular groups are located interspersed within these fibers, and are thus named the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus.Contents1 Connections 2 Nuclei of the lateral lemniscus2.1 DNLL 2.2 INLL 2.3 VNLL3 Inputs and outputs to nuclei 4 References 5 Additional imagesConnections[edit] The brainstem nuclei include:the superior olive the intermediate nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (INLL) the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (VNLL) the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL)Fibers leaving these brainstem nuclei ascending to the inferior colliculus rejoin the lateral lemniscus
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Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus
The spinal trigeminal nucleus is a nucleus in the medulla that receives information about deep/crude touch, pain, and temperature from the ipsilateral face. In addition to the trigeminal nerve (CN V), the facial (CN VII), glossopharyngeal (CN IX), and vagus nerves (CN X) also convey pain information from their areas to the spinal trigeminal nucleus.[1] Thus the spinal trigeminal nucleus receives input from cranial nerves V, VII, IX, and X. The spinal nucleus is composed of three subnuclei: subnucleus oralis (pars oralis), subnucleus caudalis (pars caudalis), and subnucleus interpolaris (pars interpolaris). The subnucleus oralis is associated with the transmission of discriminative (fine) tactile sense from the orofacial region, and is continuous with the principal sensory nucleus of V
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Cochlear Nucleus
The cochlear nuclear (CN) complex comprises two cranial nerve nuclei in the human brainstem, the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) and the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN). The ventral cochlear nucleus is unlayered whereas the dorsal cochlear nucleus is layered. Auditory nerve fibers, fibers that travel through the auditory nerve (also known as the cochlear nerve or eighth cranial nerve) carry information from the inner ear, the cochlea, on the same side of the head, to the nerve root in the ventral cochlear nucleus. At the nerve root the fibers branch to innervate the ventral cochlear nucleus and the deep layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. All acoustic information thus enters the brain through the cochlear nuclei, where the processing of acoustic information begins
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