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Baruch Blumberg
BARUCH SAMUEL BLUMBERG (July 28, 1925 – April 5, 2011) — known as BARRY BLUMBERG — was an American physician , geneticist , and co-recipient of the 1976 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (with Daniel Carleton Gajdusek ), for his work on the hepatitis B virus while an investigator at the NIH. He was President of the American Philosophical Society from 2005 until his death. Blumberg received the Nobel Prize for "discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases." Blumberg identified the hepatitis B virus, and later developed its diagnostic test and vaccine
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American Academy Of Arts And Sciences
Coordinates : 42°22′51″N 71°06′37″W / 42.380755°N 71.110256°W / 42.380755; -71.110256 American Academy of Arts and Sciences
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
American Academy of Arts and Sc

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Genetic Variation
GENETIC VARIATION means that biological systems – individuals and populations – are different over space. Each gene pool includes various alleles of genes . The variation occurs both within and among populations , supported by individual carriers of the variant genes. Genetic variation
Genetic variation
is brought about, fundamentally, by mutation , which is a permanent change in the chemical structure of chromosomes . Genetic recombination
Genetic recombination
also produces changes within alleles. CONTENTS * 1 Among individuals within a population * 2 Between populations * 3 Measurement * 4 Sources * 5 Forms * 6 Maintenance in populations * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links AMONG INDIVIDUALS WITHIN A POPULATION Genetic variation
Genetic variation
among individuals within a population can be identified at a variety of levels
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National Aeronautics And Space Administration
The NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ( NASA
NASA
/ˈnæsə/ ) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program , as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
established NASA
NASA
in 1958 with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science . The National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Act was passed on July 29, 1958, disestablishing NASA's predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new agency became operational on October 1, 1958
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Ames Research Center
AMES RESEARCH CENTER (ARC), also known as NASA
NASA
AMES, is a major NASA research center at Moffett Federal Airfield in California's Silicon Valley . It was founded as the second National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
Aeronautics
(NACA) laboratory. That agency was dissolved and its assets and personnel transferred to the newly created National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Administration (NASA) on October 1, 1958. NASA Ames is named in honor of Joseph Sweetman Ames , a physicist and one of the founding members of NACA. At last estimate NASA
NASA
Ames has over US$3.0 billion in capital equipment, 2,300 research personnel and a US$860 million annual budget. Ames was founded to conduct wind-tunnel research on the aerodynamics of propeller-driven aircraft; however, its role has expanded to encompass spaceflight and information technology
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United Therapeutics Corporation
UNITED THERAPEUTICS is a biotechnology company. It is listed on the NASDAQ . Its headquarters are located in Silver Spring, Maryland , with additional facilities in Research Triangle Park , North Carolina; Magog, Quebec ; Melbourne , Florida; and Manchester , New Hampshire. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Medicines * 3 FDA Vouchers * 4 References HISTORYUnited Therapeutics was founded in 1996 by Martine Rothblatt , an American lawyer, author, and entrepreneur, who previously created Sirius XM . In 1994, Rothblatt's young daughter was diagnosed with a fatal orphan disease , pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Rothblatt sold her telecom stock and started the $3 million PPH Cure Foundation to fund PAH research. By 2002 the FDA had approved United Therapeutics new drug Remodulin an alternative to GlaxoSmithKline 's Flolan . In 2002 Remodulin was priced at $90,000 per year and within "a year annual sales were $50 million." By 2010 sales rose to $300 million
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Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center
The NEWYORK–PRESBYTERIAN HOSPITAL is a nonprofit university hospital in New York City
New York City
affiliated with two Ivy League medical schools: Columbia University\'s College of Physicians and Surgeons and Weill Cornell Medical College . It is composed of two distinct medical centers, Columbia University
University
Medical Center and Weill Cornell Medical Center . As of August 2017 , the hospital is ranked as the 8th best hospital in the United States and 1st in the New York City metropolitan area by U.S. News "> NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital
Hospital
/ Columbia campus NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital
Hospital
/ Weill Cornell campus The New York Hospital was founded in 1771 by Edinburgh graduate Samuel Bard
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Columbia University College Of Physicians And Surgeons
Coordinates : 40°50′29″N 73°56′28″W / 40.841519°N 73.941139°W / 40.841519; -73.941139 Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons TYPE Private ESTABLISHED 1767 ENDOWMENT $1.136 billion DEAN Lee Goldman ACADEMIC STAFF 4,300 STUDENTS 1,520 606 M.D. 94 M.D./Ph.D. 776 Ph.D. LOCATION Manhattan
Manhattan
, New York , U.S. CAMPUS Urban COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND SURGEONS, colloquially known as P&S, is a graduate school of Columbia University
Columbia University
that is located in the Columbia University
Columbia University
Irving Medical Center in the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan
Manhattan

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Richard Feynman
RICHARD PHILLIPS FEYNMAN (/ˈfaɪnmən/ ; May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics , the theory of quantum electrodynamics , and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium , as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model. For his contributions to the development of quantum electrodynamics, Feynman, jointly with Julian Schwinger and Shin\'ichirō Tomonaga , received the Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
in 1965. Feynman developed a widely used pictorial representation scheme for the mathematical expressions governing the behavior of subatomic particles , which later became known as Feynman diagrams
Feynman diagrams
. During his lifetime, Feynman became one of the best-known scientists in the world
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United States Navy
U.S. Department of Defense * Dept. of the Navy
Navy
(since 1798) HEADQUARTERS The Pentagon
The Pentagon
Arlington County, Virginia , U.S
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World War II
Allied victory * Collapse of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires * Dissolution of the League of Nations
League of Nations
* Creation of the United Nations
United Nations
* Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers * Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more... ) PARTICIPANTS ALLIED POWERS AXIS POWERS COMMANDERS AND LEADERS MAIN ALLIED LEADERS * Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
* Franklin D
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Schenectady, New York
SCHENECTADY /skᵻˈnɛktədi/ (skə-NEK-tə-dee ) is a city in Schenectady County , New York , United States
United States
, of which it is the county seat. As of the 2010 census , the city had a population of 66,135. The name "Schenectady" is derived from a Mohawk word skahnéhtati meaning "beyond the pines". The city was founded on the south side of the Mohawk River by Dutch colonists in the 17th century, many from the Albany area. They were prohibited from the fur trade by the Albany monopoly, which kept its control after the English takeover in 1664. Residents of the new village developed farms on strip plots along the river. Connected to the west via the Mohawk River and Erie Canal
Erie Canal
, the city developed rapidly in the 19th century as part of the Mohawk Valley trade, manufacturing and transportation corridor
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USA Science And Engineering Festival
The biennial USA SCIENCE & ENGINEERING FESTIVAL is a free science festival held in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
. The festival is the largest celebration of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines in the United States. Larry Bock and Ray O. Johnson of the Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin
Corporation founded the festival. The inaugural event was held from October 10, 2010, through October 24, 2010, the second festival was April 27–29, 2012 (attended by a quarter million visitors), and the third festival (attended by over 325,000 visitors) was April 24–27, 2014. The third festival featured the first X-STEM Symposium on April 24, 2014, with interactive presentations and workshops. The fourth festival was held on April 16-17, 2016. The second X-STEM Symposium was held as a stand-alone event on April 14, 2016
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Talmud
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah
Mishnah
* Tosefta
Tosefta
—— Amoraic ( Gemara
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New Scientist
NEW SCIENTIST is a weekly English-language international science magazine, founded in 1956. Since 1996 it has also run a website. Sold in retail outlets and on subscription, the magazine covers current developments, news, reviews and commentary on science and technology. It also publishes speculative articles, ranging from the technical to the philosophical. A readers' letters section discusses recent articles, and discussions also take place on the website. Readers contribute observations on examples of pseudoscience to Feedback, and offer questions and answers on scientific and technical topics to Last Word; extracts from the latter have been compiled into several books. New Scientist, based in London, publishes editions in the UK, the United States, and Australia
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List Of Jewish Nobel Laureates
The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
is an annual, international prize first awarded in 1901 for achievements in Physics , Chemistry , Physiology or Medicine , Literature , and Peace . An associated prize in Economics has been awarded since 1969. Nobel Prizes have been awarded to 881 individuals, of whom 197 - 22.4% - were Jewish
Jewish
or people of Jewish descent, although Jews and people of Jewish
Jewish
descent comprise less than 0.2% of the world's population. Jews or people of Jewish
Jewish
descent have been recipients of all six awards, including 41% of economics, 28% of medicine, 26% of physics, 19% of chemistry, 13% of literature and 9% of all peace awards. The first Jewish
Jewish
recipient, Adolf von Baeyer , was awarded the prize in Chemistry in 1905. As of 2016 , the most recent Jewish
Jewish
recipients included J
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