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Bartolomeo Panizza
BARTOLOMEO PANIZZA (August 17, 1785 – April 17, 1867) was an Italian anatomist born in Vicenza
Vicenza
. He received a medical degree in surgery from Padua
Padua
, and furthered his studies at Bologna
Bologna
and Pavia
Pavia
. In 1809 he became a professor at the University of Pavia
Pavia
, and in 1835 a member of the Academia nazionale delle scienze (National Academy of Science). Panizza was a student and associate to famed anatomist Antonio Scarpa (1752-1832). He was the first physician to attribute the vision function to the posterior cortex . He published his findings in an 1855 treatise titled "Osservazioni sul nervo ottico" (Observations on the Optic Nerve). At the time, his discovery was largely ignored, and it would be several years until the importance of Panizza's findings were realized
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Frenulum
A FRENULUM (or FRENUM, plural: FRENULA or FRENA, from the Latin frēnulum, "little bridle", the diminutive of frēnum ) is a small fold of tissue that secures or restricts the motion of a mobile organ in the body . CONTENTS * 1 In human anatomy * 2 In entomology * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links IN HUMAN ANATOMYFrenula on the human body include several in the mouth , some in the digestive tract , and some connected to the external genitalia . * BRAIN: Frenulum of superior medullary velum
Frenulum of superior medullary velum
or frenulum veli * DIGESTIVE TRACT: frenulum valvae ileocaecalis * ORAL TISSUE: Frenula of the mouth include the frenulum linguae under the tongue , the frenulum labii superioris inside the upper lip, the frenulum labii inferioris inside the lower lip, and the buccal frena which connect the cheeks to the gum
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Foreskin
In male human anatomy , the FORESKIN is the double-layered fold of smooth muscle tissue , blood vessels , neurons , skin , and mucous membrane part of the penis that covers and protects the glans penis and the urinary meatus . It is also described as the PREPUCE, a technically broader term that also includes the clitoral hood in women, to which the foreskin is embryonically homologous . The highly innervated mucocutaneous zone of the penis occurs near the tip of the foreskin. The foreskin is mobile, fairly stretchable, and acts as a natural lubricant . The foreskin of adults is typically retractable over the glans. Coverage of the glans in a flaccid and erect state varies depending on foreskin length. The foreskin is attached to the glans at birth and is generally not retractable in infancy. Inability to retract the foreskin in childhood should not be considered a problem unless there are other symptoms
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Lymph Vessels
In anatomy , LYMPHATIC VESSELS (or LYMPH VESSELS or LYMPHATICS) are thin-walled, valved structures that carry lymph . As part of the lymphatic system , lymph vessels are complementary to the cardiovascular system . Lymph
Lymph
vessels are lined by endothelial cells , and have a thin layer of smooth muscles , and adventitia that bind the lymph vessels to the surrounding tissue. Lymph
Lymph
vessels are devoted to the propulsion of the lymph from the lymph capillaries , which are mainly concerned with absorption of interstitial fluid from the tissues. Lymph
Lymph
capillaries are slightly larger than their counterpart capillaries of the vascular system
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Plexus
A PLEXUS (from the Latin for "braid") is a branching network of vessels or nerves . The vessels may be blood vessels (veins, capillaries) or lymphatic vessels . The nerves are typically axons outside the central nervous system. Although many medical words ending in -us that came to English from Latin have the plural suffix -i (and the plural form plexi indeed does exist in Latin), English does not use the -us/-i pattern for this particular term; the standard plural form in English is PLEXUSES. PLEXUSES * Nervous plexus The four primary nerve plexuses are the cervical plexus , brachial plexus , lumbar plexus , and the sacral plexus . * Choroid plexus
Choroid plexus
The choroid plexus is a part of the central nervous system in the brain and consists of capillaries, ventricles, and ependymal cells
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Anatomist
ANATOMY is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. Anatomy
Anatomy
(Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is a branch of natural science dealing with the structural organization of living things. It is an old science, having its beginnings in prehistoric times. Anatomy
Anatomy
is inherently tied to embryology , comparative anatomy , evolutionary biology , and phylogeny , as these are the processes by which anatomy is generated over immediate (embryology) and long (evolution) timescales. Human anatomy is one of the basic essential sciences of medicine . The discipline of anatomy is divided into macroscopic and microscopic anatomy . Macroscopic anatomy, or gross anatomy , is the examination of an animal's body parts using unaided eyesight . Gross anatomy
Gross anatomy
also includes the branch of superficial anatomy
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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Library Of Congress Control Number
The LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONTROL NUMBER (LCCN) is a serially based system of numbering cataloging records in the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
in the United States. It has nothing to do with the contents of any book, and should not be confused with Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Classification . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Format * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe LCCN numbering system has been in use since 1898, at which time the acronym LCCN originally stood for Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Card Number. It has also been called the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Catalog Card Number, among other names. The Library of Congress
Library of Congress
prepared cards of bibliographic information for their library catalog and would sell duplicate sets of the cards to other libraries for use in their catalogs
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Istituto Centrale Per Il Catalogo Unico
The CENTRAL INSTITUTE FOR THE UNION CATALOGUE OF ITALIAN LIBRARIES AND FOR BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION (in Italian : Istituto centrale per il catalogo unico delle biblioteche italiane e per le informazioni bibliografiche) is an Italian government agency that was created in 1975 to supersede the Centro nazionale per il catalogo unico (National Single Directory Center), that had in turn been created in 1951 to build a single catalog of all the libraries in the nation
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Bibliothèque Nationale De France
The BIBLIOTHèQUE NATIONALE DE FRANCE (BNF; French: ) is the National Library of France
France
, located in Paris
Paris
. It is the national repository of all that is published in France. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 New buildings * 3 Mission * 4 Manuscript
Manuscript
collection * 5 Digital library * 6 Popular culture * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links HISTORYThe National Library of France
France
traces its origin to the royal library founded at the Louvre Palace by Charles V in 1368. Charles had received a collection of manuscripts from his predecessor, John II , and transferred them to the Louvre
Louvre
from the Palais de la Cité
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Système Universitaire De Documentation
The SYSTèME UNIVERSITAIRE DE DOCUMENTATION or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify, track and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers
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International Standard Name Identifier
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD NAME IDENTIFIER (ISNI) is an identifier for uniquely identifying the public identities of contributors to media content such as books, television programmes, and newspaper articles. Such an identifier consists of 16 digits. It can optionally be displayed as divided into four blocks. It was developed under the auspices of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as Draft International Standard 27729; the valid standard was published on 15 March 2012. The ISO technical committee 46, subcommittee 9 ( TC 46/SC 9 ) is responsible for the development of the standard. ISNI can be used to disambiguate names that might otherwise be confused, and links the data about names that are collected and used in all sectors of the media industries
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Lymphatic System
The LYMPHATIC SYSTEM is part of the circulatory system and a vital part of the immune system , comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water" ) directionally towards the heart. The lymphatic system was first described in the seventeenth century independently by Olaus Rudbeck and Thomas Bartholin
Thomas Bartholin
. Unlike the circulatory system, the lymphatic system is not a closed system. The human circulatory system processes an average of 20 liters of blood per day through capillary filtration , which removes plasma while leaving the blood cells . Roughly 17 litres of the filtered plasma are reabsorbed directly into the blood vessels, while the remaining three litres remain in the interstitial fluid . One of the main functions of the lymph system is to provide an accessory return route to the blood for the surplus three litres
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Reptile
See text for extinct groups. Global reptile distributionREPTILES are tetrapod (four-limbed vertebrate) animals in the class REPTILIA, comprising today's turtles , crocodilians , snakes , amphisbaenians , lizards , tuatara , and their extinct relatives. The study of these traditional reptile orders , historically combined with that of modern amphibians , is called herpetology . Because some reptiles are more closely related to birds than they are to other reptiles (e.g., crocodiles are more closely related to birds than they are to lizards), the traditional groups of "reptiles" listed above do not together constitute a monophyletic grouping (or clade ). For this reason, many modern scientists prefer to consider the birds part of Reptilia as well, thereby making Reptilia a monophyletic class
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Pavia
PAVIA (Italian: ( listen ); Lombard : Pavia; Latin : Ticinum; Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
: Papia) is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy , northern Italy, 35 kilometres (22 miles) south of Milan
Milan
on the lower Ticino river near its confluence with the Po . It has a population of c. 73,000. The city was the capital of the Kingdom of the Lombards from 572 to 774. Pavia
Pavia
is the capital of the fertile province of Pavia
Pavia
, known for agricultural products including wine, rice, cereals, and dairy products. Although there are a number of industries located in the suburbs, these tend not to disturb the peaceful atmosphere of the town
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