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Barons
BARON is a title of honour, often hereditary. The female equivalent is BARONESS. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Continental Europe * 2.1 France * 2.2 Germany
Germany
* 2.3 Italy * 2.4 The Low Countries
Low Countries
* 2.5 Nordic countries * 2.6 Russia * 2.7 Spain * 3 United Kingdom and the Commonwealth * 3.1 Ireland * 3.2 Scotland
Scotland
* 3.3 Style of address * 3.4 Coronet * 4 Other * 5 See also * 6 Sources * 7 References ETYMOLOGYThe word baron comes from the Old French
Old French
baron, from a Late Latin baro "man; servant, soldier, mercenary" (so used in Salic Law
Salic Law
; Alemannic Law has barus in the same sense)
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Oxford English Dictionary
The OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language
English language
, published by the Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world. The second edition came to 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, published in 1989. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was not until 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles; Founded Mainly on the Materials Collected by The Philological Society
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Lucius Annaeus Cornutus
LUCIUS ANNAEUS CORNUTUS (Greek : Ἀνναῖος Κορνοῦτος), a Stoic philosopher , flourished in the reign of Nero
Nero
(c. 60 AD), when his house in Rome
Rome
was a school of philosophy. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Writings * 2.1 Compendium of Greek Theology * 2.2 Spurious works * 3 Notes * 4 External links LIFEHe was a native of Leptis Magna
Leptis Magna
in Libya , but resided for the most part in Rome
Rome
. He is best known as the teacher and friend of Persius , whose fifth satire is addressed to him, as well as other distinguished students, such as Claudius Agathemerus . "Through Cornutus Persius was introduced to Annaeus, as well as to Lucan , who was of his own age, and also a disciple of Cornutus". At Persius' death, Cornutus returned to Persius' sisters a bequest made to him, but accepted Persius' library of some 700 scrolls
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Ancien Régime
The ANCIEN RéGIME (French pronunciation: ​ ; French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
(c. 15th century) until 1792, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility
French nobility
were abolished by the French Revolution
French Revolution
. The Ancien Régime
Ancien Régime
was ruled by the late Valois and Bourbon dynasties. The term is occasionally used to refer to the similar feudal systems of the time elsewhere in Europe
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Commoner
The terms COMMON PEOPLE, COMMON MAN, COMMONERS, or the MASSES denote a broad social division referring to ordinary people who are members of neither royalty nor nobility nor the priesthood . Since the 20th century, the term common people has been used in a more general sense to refer to typical members of society in contrast to highly privileged (in either wealth or influence). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Breakdown of the trifold division * 3 Social divisions in non-Western civilisations * 4 See also * 5 Notes and references * 6 Further reading * 7 External links HISTORYIn Europe, a distinct concept analogous to common people arose in the Classical civilization of ancient Rome around the 6th century BC, with the social division into patricians (nobles) and plebeians (commoners). The division may have been instituted by Servius Tullius , as an alternative to the previous clan based divisions that had been responsible for internecine conflict
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Courtesy Title
A COURTESY TITLE is a title that does not have legal significance but rather is used through custom or courtesy, particularly, in the context of nobility , the titles used by children of members of the nobility (c.f. substantive title ). In some contexts, courtesy title is used to mean the more general concept of a title or honorific such as Mr. , Mrs. , Ms. , Dr. , Miss , Sir
Sir
, and Madam
Madam
. CONTENTS * 1 Africa
Africa
* 2 France * 2.1 Ancien Régime * 2.1.1 Courtesy title as principal title * 2.1.2 Courtesy title used by sons and daughters * 3 United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* 4 See also * 5 References AFRICAIn much of Africa
Africa
, many of the surviving noble titles are social courtesies that are recognized by customary law and little else
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Old English Language
OLD ENGLISH (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc) or ANGLO-SAXON is the earliest historical form of the English language
English language
, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland
Scotland
in the early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. It was brought to Great Britain
Great Britain
by Anglo-Saxon settlers probably in the mid 5th century, and the first Old English
Old English
literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman Conquest
Norman Conquest
of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman , a relative of French . This is regarded as marking the end of the Old English
Old English
era, as during this period the English language was heavily influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English
Middle English

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Old Frankish
FRANKISH (reconstructed Frankish: *Frenkisk), OLD FRANCONIAN or OLD FRANKISH was the West Germanic language spoken by the Franks
Franks
between the 4th and 8th century. The language itself is poorly attested, but it gave rise to numerous loanwords in Old French
Old French
. Old Dutch
Old Dutch
is the term for the Old Franconian dialects spoken in the Low Countries
Low Countries
, ie. in present-day Belgium, in the present Netherlands and Western parts of today's Germany until about the 12th century when it evolved into Middle Dutch . During the Merovingian period , Frankish had significant influence on the Romance languages
Romance languages
spoken in Gaul . As a result, many modern French words and placenames (including the country name "France") have a Frankish origin
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Late Latin
LATE LATIN is the scholarly name for the written Latin
Latin
of Late Antiquity . The English dictionary definition of Late Latin
Latin
dates this period from the 3rd to the 6th centuries AD, extending in the Iberian Peninsula of southwestern Europe to the 7th century. This somewhat-ambiguously-defined period fits between Classical Latin
Latin
and Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
. There is no scholarly consensus about exactly when Classical Latin
Latin
should end or exactly when Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
should begin. However, Late Latin
Latin
is characterized (with variations and disputes) by an identifiable style. Being a written language, Late Latin
Latin
is not identical with Vulgar Latin
Latin

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Salic Law
SALIC LAW (/ˈsælᵻk/ or /ˈseɪlᵻk/ ; Latin
Latin
: Lex Salica), or SALIAN LAW, was the ancient Salian Frankish civil law code compiled around AD 500 by the first Frankish King , Clovis . Recorded in Latin and in what Dutch linguists describe as one of the earliest known records of Old Dutch
Old Dutch
, perhaps second only to the Bergakker inscription , it remained the basis of Frankish law throughout the early Medieval period , and influenced future European legal systems . The best-known tenet of the old law is the principle of exclusion of women from inheritance of thrones, fiefs and other property. The Salic laws were arbitrated by a committee appointed and empowered by the King of the Franks
Franks
. Dozens of manuscripts dating from the 6th to 8th centuries and three emendations as late as the 9th century have survived
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Alemannic Law
The LEX ALAMANNORUM and PACTUS ALAMANNORUM were two early medieval law codes of the Alamanni . They were first edited in parts in 1530 by Johannes Sichard in Basel
Basel
. CONTENTS * 1 Pactus Alamannorum * 2 Lex Alamannorum * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links PACTUS ALAMANNORUMThe Pactus Alamannorum or Pactus legis Alamannorum is the older of the two codes, dating to the early 7th century. It is preserved in a single manuscript of the 9th to 10th century (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, MS Lat. 10753). LEX ALAMANNORUMThe Lex Alamannorum is preserved in some 50 manuscripts dating to between the 8th and 12th centuries. The text's first redaction is ascribed to the Alamannic duke Lantfrid in ca. 730. It is divided into clerical law, ducal law and popular law
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Isidore Of Seville
SAINT ISIDORE OF SEVILLE (Latin : Isidorus Hispalensis; c. 560 – 4 April 636), a scholar and, for over three decades, Archbishop of Seville , is widely regarded as the last of the Fathers of the Church , as the 19th-century historian Montalembert put it in an oft-quoted phrase, "The last scholar of the ancient world." At a time of disintegration of classical culture, and aristocratic violence and illiteracy, he was involved in the conversion of the royal Visigothic Arians to Catholicism, both assisting his brother Leander of Seville , and continuing after his brother's death. He was influential in the inner circle of Sisebut , Visigothic king of Hispania . Like Leander, he played a prominent role in the Councils of Toledo and Seville
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Nobles Of The Robe
Under the Old Regime of France
France
, the NOBLES OF THE ROBE or NOBLES OF THE GOWN (French : Noblesse de robe) were French aristocrats whose rank came from holding certain judicial or administrative posts. As a rule, the positions did not of themselves give the holder a title of nobility, such as baron, count, or duke (but the holder might also hold such a title), but they were almost always attached to a specific function. The offices were often hereditary, and by 1789, most had inherited their positions. The most influential of them were the 1,100 members of the 13 parlements , or courts of appeal
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Nobles Of The Sword
The NOBLES OF THE SWORD (French : noblesse d'épée) were the noblemen of the oldest class of nobility in France
France
dating from the Middle Ages and the Early Modern periods but still arguably in existence by descent. It was originally the knightly class, owing military service (usually to a king, who might be the king of France or the king of England ), in return for the possession of feudal landed estates
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Nobiliary Particle
A NOBILIARY PARTICLE is used in a surname or family name in many Western cultures to signal the nobility of a family. The particle used varies depending on the country, language and period of time. However, in some languages the nobiliary particle is the same as a regular prepositional particle that was used in the creation of many surnames . In some countries it became customary to distinguish the nobiliary particle from the regular one by different spelling, although in other countries these conventions did not arise, occasionally resulting in ambiguity. The nobiliary particle can often be omitted in everyday speech or certain contexts
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Uradel
URADEL (German: , German : "ancient nobility"; adjective uradelig or uradlig) is a genealogical term introduced in late 18th-century Germany to distinguish those families whose noble rank can be traced to the 14th century or earlier. The word stands opposed to Briefadel , a term used for titles of nobility created in the early modern or modern period by letters patent . Since the earliest known such letters were issued in the 14th century, those knightly families in northern European nobility whose noble rank predates these are designated uradel. Uradel
Uradel
and Briefadel families are generally further divided into the categories adlig (untitled and titled nobility ), freiherrlich (baronial ), gräflich (comital ), and fürstlich (royal , princely and ducal ) houses. The latter are also referred to as Hochadel (High Nobility)
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