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Barbary Corsairs
The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Ottoman pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Salé, Rabat, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli. This area was known in Europe
Europe
as the Barbary Coast, a term derived from the name of its Berber inhabitants. Their predation extended throughout the Mediterranean, south along West Africa's Atlantic
Atlantic
seaboard and even South America,[1] and into the North Atlantic
Atlantic
as far north as Iceland, but they primarily operated in the western Mediterranean
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Laureys A Castro
Laureys a Castro
Laureys a Castro
or Lourenço A. Castro[1] was a Flemish painter of marine views and portraits who is mainly known for his work executed in England roughly between 1672 and 1700. He was regarded as a leading marine painter in England.Contents1 Life 2 Work 3 References 4 External linksLife[edit] There are very few details about Laureys a Castro’s life and training. It is assumed he was the son of the Flemish marine painter Sebastian Castro. His family was of Portuguese descent and had settled in Antwerp likely to escape the persecution of Jews during the Portuguese Inquisition
Portuguese Inquisition
of the early 1600s. It is assumed Laureys received his training from his father.[2] Laureys is recorded as a 'wijnmeester' (i.e
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Saracen
Saracen
Saracen
was a term widely used among Christian writers in Europe during the Middle Ages. The term's meaning evolved during its history. In the early centuries of the Common Era, Greek and Latin writings used this term to refer to the people who lived in desert areas in and near the Roman province of Arabia Petraea, and who were specifically distinguished from others as a people known as Arabs.[1][2] In Europe during the Early Middle Ages, the term came to be associated with tribes of Arabia as well.[3] By the 12th century, "Saracen" had become synonymous with "Muslim" in Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
literature
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Religious Conversion
Religious conversion
Religious conversion
is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination to the exclusion of others. Thus "religious conversion" would describe the abandoning of adherence to one denomination and affiliating with another
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Hayreddin Barbarossa
Hayreddin Barbarossa
Hayreddin Barbarossa
(Arabic: Khayr ad-Din Barbarus خير الدين بربروس), (Latin: Ariadenus Barbarussa), or Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha
Pasha
(Turkish: Barbaros Hayreddin (Hayrettin) Paşa or Hızır Hayreddin (Hayrettin) Paşa; also Hızır Reis before being promoted to the rank of Pasha
Pasha
and becoming the Kapudan Pasha), born Khizr or Khidr (Turkish: Hızır; c. 1478 – 4 July 1546), was an Ottoman admiral of the fleet who was born on the island of Lesbos
Lesbos
and died in Constantinople, the Ottoman capital
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Oruç Reis
Oruç Reis (Turkish: Oruç Reis; Arabic: عروج الريس‎; Spanish: Arrudye; c. 1474–1518) was an Ottoman bey (governor) of Algiers and beylerbey (chief governor) of the West Mediterranean, and the elder brother of Hayreddin Barbarossa
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Napoleonic Wars
The Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
(1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon
Napoleon
I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution
French Revolution
and its resultant conflict. The wars are often categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon; the Third Coalition
Third Coalition
(1805), the Fourth (1806–07), Fifth (1809), Sixth (1813), and the Seventh and final (1815). Napoleon, upon ascending to First Consul of France
France
in 1799, had inherited a chaotic republic; he subsequently created a state with stable finances, a strong bureaucracy, and a well-trained army
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Congress Of Vienna
The Congress of Vienna
Vienna
(German: Wiener Kongress) was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna
Vienna
from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814. The objective of the Congress was to provide a long-term peace plan for Europe by settling critical issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars
French Revolutionary Wars
and the Napoleonic Wars. The goal was not simply to restore old boundaries but to resize the main powers so they could balance each other and remain at peace. The leaders were conservatives with little use for republicanism or revolution, both of which threatened to upset the status quo in Europe
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto:  "In God
God
We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos  "E pluribus unum" (Latin) (de facto) "Out of many, one" "Annuit cœptis" (Latin) "H
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French North Africa
 Ottoman Empire Regency of Algiers Beylik of Tunis Moroccan rebelsCasualties and losses3,336 killed in action, 92,329 dead in the hospital (1830–51)[1]9,445 dead (1911–34) Algerians 500,000–1,000,000 dead (1830–75)[2] Moroccans 100,000 dead (1911–34)[3]v t eScramble for AfricaBoer War (1880) Tunisia (1881) Sudan (1881) Egypt (1882) Wassoulou (1883) Eritrea (1887) Dahomey (1890) Mashonaland (1890) Dahomey (1892) Matabeleland (1893) Wassoulou (1894) Ashanti (1895) Ethiopia (1895) Matabeleland (1896) Zanzibar (1896) Benin (1897) Wassoulou (1898) Chad (1898) (Kousséri) Fashoda (1898) South Africa (1899) Namibia (1904) Tanganyika (1905) Morocco
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Emirate Of Crete
The Emirate of Crete
Crete
(called Iqritish or Iqritiya in Arabic[1]) was a Muslim
Muslim
state that existed on the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
island of Crete
Crete
from the late 820s to the Byzantine reconquest of the island in 961. Although the emirate recognized the suzerainty of the Abbasid Caliphate and maintained close ties with Tulunid
Tulunid
Egypt, it was de facto independent. A group of Andalusian exiles conquered Crete
Crete
sometime during 824 to 828 and established an independent state. The Byzantines launched a campaign that took most of the island back in 842 and 843 under Theoktistos, but the reconquest was not completed and was soon reversed
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Provence
Provence
Provence
(/prəˈvɒns/; French pronunciation: ​[pʁɔ.vɑ̃s]; Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm, pronounced [pʀuˈvɛⁿsɔ]) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône
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Carolingian Era
The Carolingian Empire
Empire
(800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe
Europe
during the early Middle Ages. It was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty, which had ruled as kings of the Franks
Franks
since 751 and as kings of the Lombards
Lombards
of Italy
Italy
from 774. In 800, the Frankish king Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was crowned emperor in Rome
Rome
by Pope Leo III in an effort to revive the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the west during a vacancy in the throne of the eastern Roman Empire. After a civil war (840–43) following the death of Emperor Louis the Pious, the empire was divided into autonomous kingdoms, with one king still recognised as emperor, but with little authority outside his own kingdom
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Pier Francesco Mola
Pier Francesco Mola, called Il Ticinese (9 February 1612 – 13 May 1666) was an Italian painter of the High Baroque, mainly active around Rome. Biography[edit] Mola was born at Coldrerio (now in Ticino, Switzerland).[1] At the age of four, he moved to Rome with his father Giovanni Battista, a painter.[1] With the exception of the years 1633–40 and 1641–47, during which he resided in Venice and Bologna, respectively, he lived for the rest of his life in Rome.[1] His early training was with the late mannerist painter Cavalier d'Arpino, and he worked under the classicizing Francesco Albani.[1] His masterpiece as a fresco painter is widely considered to be the fresco in the gallery of Alexander VII in the Quirinal Palace Gallery, entitled Joseph making himself known to his Brethren (1657).[2] However, Mola is considered to have been better as a painter of small pictures, especially landscapes.[3] He made six versions of The Flight into Egypt, the earliest and best of which is the firs
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Rotlandus Of Arles
Rotland of Arles (also Rotlandus, Rolland, d. 18 September 869) was archbishop of Arles from c. 851 until his death in 869. He is mentioned in a letter by Leo IV in 852 and in an act by Lothar I in 854. He participated in the Council of Valence on Predestination and Grace in 855. He is again mentioned in a letter by Louis the German to the bishops of his realm in 863, and in a letter by Nicolas I dated 12 May 864. He was the only bishop of Gaul to side with the pope who opposed Lothar II's decision to divorce his wife Teutberga in order to marry Waltrade of Wormsgau. He participated in the Council of Pistres and in the Council of Pavia in 864. During Rotland's reign, the southern coast of France was plagued by Muslim pirates. In a raid in Camargue in September 869, Rotland was captured as he was supervising the organisation of the region's defense. His captors demanded a ransom of weapons and slaves
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Principality Of Catalonia
The Principality of Catalonia
Catalonia
(Catalan: Principat de Catalunya, Latin: Principatus Cathaloniæ, Occitan: Principautat de Catalonha, Spanish: Principado de Cataluña) is a historic territory and a medieval and early modern political entity and state in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula, mostly in Spain, with an adjoining portion in southern France
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