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Baraq (Chagatai Khan)
Baraq was a khan of the Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
(1266–1271). He was the son of Yesünto'a, and a great-grandson of Chagatai Khan. A convert to Islam, he took the name Ghiyas-ud-din.[1]Contents1 Background 2 Early 1260s 3 Defeat 4 Genealogy 5 See also 6 ReferencesBackground[edit] Baraq's family had moved to China
China
following his father's exile by the Great Khan
Great Khan
Möngke Khan
Möngke Khan
for his support of the house of Ögedei Khan. Baraq grew up in the camp of Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
and gained distinction there. Early 1260s[edit] Sometime in the early 1260s he traveled to Central Asia, and earned the trust of Mubarak Shah. When the latter was again enthroned as Chagatai Khan
Chagatai Khan
in 1266, Baraq gained support among the army for a coup, and deposed Mubarak Shah in September of that year
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Chagatai Khanate
The Chagatai Khanate (Mongolian: Tsagadaina Khaanat Ulus/Цагаадайн Хаант Улс) was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate[5][6] that comprised the lands ruled by Chagatai Khan,[7] second son of Genghis Khan, and his descendants and successors. Initially it was a part of the Mongol Empire, but it became a functionally separate khanate with the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
after 1259
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Baburnama
Bāburnāma (Chagatai/Persian: بابر نامہ‬‎;´, literally: "Book of Babur" or "Letters of Babur"; alternatively known as Tuzk-e Babri) is the name given to the memoirs of Ẓahīr-ud-Dīn Muhammad Bābur (1483–1530), founder of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
and a great-great-great-grandson of Timur. It is an autobiographical work, written in the Chagatai language, known to Babur
Babur
as "Turki" (meaning Turkic), the spoken language of the Andijan-Timurids. According to historian Stephen Frederic Dale, Babur's prose is highly Persianized in its sentence structure, morphology, and vocabulary,[1] and also contains many phrases and smaller poems in Persian
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Wassaf
Wassaf or Vassaf (Persian: عبدالله ابن فضل‌الله شرف‌الدین شیرازی‎) Abdallah ibn Faḍlallah Sharaf al-Din Shīrāzī (fl. 1299-1323) was a 14th-century Persian historian of the Ilkhanate
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Ilkhanate
Timeline · History · Rulers · Nobility Culture · Language · Proto-MongolsStates Mongol
Mongol
khanates IX-X Khereid
Khereid
Khanate X-1203
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Yunus Khan
Yunus Khan
Yunus Khan
(c. 1416 – 1487) (Uyghur: يونس خان‎), was Khan of Moghulistan
Moghulistan
from 1462 until his death in 1487. He is identified by many historians with Ḥājjī `Ali (Chinese: 哈只阿力, Pinyin: Hazhi Ali) (Uyghur: ھاجى علي‎), of the contemporary Chinese records.[1][2] He was the maternal grandfather of Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire.Contents1 Background and family 2 Early career 3 Khanship 4 Genealogy 5 Notes 6 ReferencesBackground and family[edit] Yunus Ali was the eldest son of Uwais Khan (or Vais Khan) of Moghulistan. When Vais Khan was killed in 1428 AD, the Moghuls were split as to who should succeed him. Although Yunus Khan
Yunus Khan
was his eldest son, the majority favored Yunus' younger brother, Esen Buqa.[1] As a result, Yunus and his supporters fled to Ulugh Beg, the Timurid ruler of Transoxiana, who however imprisoned the group
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Güyük Khan
Güyük (or Kuyuk; Mongolian: Гүюг хаан, translit. Güyug khaan Middle Mongolian: ᠭᠦᠶ᠋ᠦᠭ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ,[1] güyüg qaγan) (c. March 19, 1206 – April 20, 1248) was the third Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, the eldest son of Ögedei Khan
Ögedei Khan
and a grandson of Genghis Khan. He reigned from 1246 to 1248.Contents1 Early life 2 Enthronement (1246) 3 Reign (1246–1248) 4 Legacy 5 Children 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksEarly life[edit] Güyük received military training and served as an officer under Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and Ögedei Khan. He married Oghul Qaimish of the Merkit clan. In 1233, Güyük, along with his maternal cousin Alchidai and the Mongol general Tangghud, conquered the short-lived Dongxia Kingdom of Puxian Wannu, who was a rebellious Jin official,[2] in a few months
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Teguder (Chagatai Prince)
Teguder (Tegüder, Tagūdār) was a 13th-century Chagataid Mongol prince, a grandson of Chagatai Khan. A commander under Hulagu, Teguder staged a rebellion against Abaqa, the Ilkhan
Ilkhan
of Iran, from his base in Georgia in the late 1260s. Defeated, Teguder surrendered and was imprisoned, but he was eventually pardoned and released. Teguder's name has often been misread as Negudar and linked, erroneously, with the Negudaris, a Mongol tribe under the Jochid
Jochid
princes.[1] Biography[edit] Teguder, at the head of a Chagatai contingent, accompanied Hulagu to Iran. He was given a fief in Georgia. In the winter of 1267–68, Teguder accompanied the emissaries of his relative, Baraq, the ruler of the Chagatai Khanate, to Abaqa, the Ilkhan
Ilkhan
of Iran
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Greater Khorasan
Khorasan ( Middle Persian
Middle Persian
xwarāsān, Persian: خراسان‎ Ḫurāsān  listen (help·info)), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia
Central Asia
and Afghanistan. The name simply means "East, Orient" (literally "sunrise")[1] and it loosely includes the territory of the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
east of Persia proper. Early Islamic usage often regarded everywhere east of so-called Jibal
Jibal
or what was subsequently termed 'Iraq Adjami' (Persian Iraq), as being included in a vast and loosely-defined region of Khorasan, which might even extend to the Indus Valley
Indus Valley
and Sindh.[2] During the Islamic period, Khorasan along with Persian Iraq were two important territories
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Herat
Herat
Herat
(/hɛˈrɑːt/;[3] Persian: هرات‎, Herât; Pashto: هرات‎; Ancient Greek: Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ ἐν Ἀρίοις, Alexándreia hē en Aríois; Latin: Alexandria Ariorum) is the third-largest city of Afghanistan. It has a population of about 436,300,[2] and serves as the capital of Herat
Herat
Province, situated in the fertile valley of the Hari River. It is linked with Kandahar
Kandahar
and Mazar-e-Sharif
Mazar-e-Sharif
via Highway 1 or the ring road. It is further linked to the city of Mashhad
Mashhad
in neighboring Iran
Iran
through the border town of Islam Qala, and to Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
through the border town of Torghundi, both about 100 km (62 mi) away. Herat
Herat
dates back to the Avestan times and was traditionally known for its wine
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Babur
Babur, a word derived from Persian and meaning "lion" (Persian: بابر‬‎, translit. Bābur, lit. 'Lion';[2][3] 14 February 1483 – 26 December 1530), born Zahīr ud-Dīn Muhammad, was the founder and first Emperor of the Mughal dynasty in the Indian subcontinent. He was a direct descendant of Emperor Timur the Great (Tamurlane) from Transoxiana
Transoxiana
(in modern-day Uzbekistan).[4][5][6] Babur
Babur
was the eldest son of Umar Sheikh Mirza, governor of Farghana and great grandson of Timur
Timur
the Great. He ascended the throne of Farghana in its capital Akhsikent
Akhsikent
in 1494 at the age of twelve and faced rebellion. He conquered Samarkand
Samarkand
two years later, only to lose the vilayat of Fergana
Fergana
soon after. In his attempt to reconquer Fergana, he lost control of Samarkand
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Rashid-al-Din Hamadani
Rashīd al-Dīn Ṭabīb (Persian: رشیدالدین طبیب‎), also known as Rashīd al-Dīn Faḍlullāh Hamadānī (Persian: رشیدالدین فضل‌الله همدانی‎, 1247–1318), was a statesman, historian and physician in Ilkhanate-ruled Iran.[1] He was born into a Persian Jewish family from Hamadan. Having converted to Islam
Islam
by the age of 30, Rashid al-Din became the powerful vizier of the Ilkhan, Ghazan
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Kaidu–Kublai War
Yuan dynasty Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
(ally of Kublai)Commanders and leadersKaidu Baraq Duwa Mengu-Timur Kublai Khan Temür Khan Abaghav t eDivision of the Mongol EmpireKhanateYuan dynasty Ilkhanate Golden Horde Chagatai KhanateWarToluid Civil War Berke–Hulagu war Kaidu–Kublai war Esen Buqa–Ayurbarwada warThe Kaidu–Kublai war
Kaidu–Kublai war
was a war between Kaidu, the leader of the House of Ögedei
House of Ögedei
and the de facto khan of the Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
in Central Asia, and Kublai Khan, the founder of the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
in China
China
and his successor Temür Khan
Temür Khan
that lasted a few decades from 1268 to 1301. It followed the Toluid Civil War
Toluid Civil War
(1260–1264) and resulted in the permanent division of the Mongol Empire
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Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat
Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat
Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat
Beg (1499 or 1500–1551) was a Chagatai Turko-Mogol military general, ruler of Kashmir, and a historical writer. He was a Turkic speaking Dughlat prince who wrote in the Persian[1] and Chagatai languages. Prince Haider was a first cousin of Prince Zahir (later Emperor Babur), their mothers were sisters.Silver sasnu issued in 1533 in Kashmir
Kashmir
by Haidar Dughlat, in the name of Said Khan. The obverse legend reads al-sultan al-a'zam mir sa'id ghan.Silver sasnu issued during 1546-50 in Kashmir
Kashmir
by Haidar Dughlat, in the name of the Mughal emperor Humayun. The obverse legend reads al-sultan al-a'zam Muhammad humayun ghazi.Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 Family 4 Films 5 References 6 External links 7 NotesLife[edit] He first campaigned in Kashmir
Kashmir
in 1533, on behalf of Sultan Said Khan, of Kashgar
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Chingiz Khan
Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
or Chinggis Khaan[note 3] (born Temüjin,[note 4] c. 1162 – August 18, 1227), was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death. He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia. After founding the Empire and being proclaimed "Genghis Khan", he launched the Mongol invasions
Mongol invasions
that conquered most of Eurasia. Campaigns initiated in his lifetime include those against the Qara Khitai, Caucasus, and Khwarazmian, Western Xia and Jin dynasties. These campaigns were often accompanied by large-scale massacres of the civilian populations – especially in the Khwarazmian and Western Xia
Western Xia
controlled lands
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Chaghatai Khan
Chagatai Khan
Chagatai Khan
(Mongolian: Цагадай, Tsagadai; Chinese: 察合台, Chágětái; Turkish: Çağatay; Persian: جغتای‬‎, Joghatai; 22 December 1183 – 1 July 1242) was the second son of Genghis Khan. He was Khan of the Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
from 1226-1242 C.E.[1] The Chagatai language
Chagatai language
and Chagatai Turks take their names from him. He inherited most of what are now the five Central Asian states after the death of his father.[1] He was also appointed by Genghis Khan to oversee the execution of the Yassa, the written code of law created by Genghis Khan, though that lasted only until Genghis Khan was crowned Khan of the Mongol Empire.[1] The Empire later came to be known as the Chagatai Khanate, a descendant empire of the Mongol Empire
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