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Bar Kokhba Revolt
Decisive Roman victory:An all-out defeat of Judean rebels Large-scale destruction of Judean population by Roman troops Suppression of Jewish
Jewish
religious and political autonomy by Hadrian Jews banned from JerusalemTerritorial changes Judea
Judea
renamed and merged into the Syria Palaestina
Syria Palaestina
province.Belligerents Roman Empire Judeans under Bar KokhbaCommanders and leaders Hadrian Tineius Rufus (DOW) Sextus Julius Severus Publicius Marcellus T. Haterius Nepos Q
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Ancient Israel
The Kingdom of Israel
Israel
and the Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah
were related Iron Age kingdoms of the ancient Levant. The Kingdom of Israel
Israel
emerged as an important local power by the 10th century BCE before falling to the Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
in 722 BCE. Israel's southern neighbor, the Kingdom of Judah, emerged in the 8th or 9th century BCE[1] and enjoyed a period of prosperity as a client state of first the Neo-Assyrian Empire and then the Neo-Babylonian Empire
Neo-Babylonian Empire
before a revolt against the latter led to its destruction in 586 BCE
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Eleazar Of Modi'im
Eleazar of Modi'im (Hebrew: אלעזר המודעי) was a Jewish scholar of the second tannaitic generation (1st and 2nd centuries), disciple of Johanan ben Zakkai
Johanan ben Zakkai
(B. B. 10b), and contemporary of Joshua ben Hananiah and Eliezer ben Hyrcanus
Eliezer ben Hyrcanus
(Mekhilta, Beshallah, Wayassa', 3 et seq.). He was an expert haggadist, and frequently discussed exegetical topics with his distinguished contemporaries. Gamaliel
Gamaliel
II often deferred to Eleazar's interpretations, admitting, "The Moda'i's views are still indispensable" ( Shab. 55b). Life[edit] As his life embraced the period of Hadrianic
Hadrianic
persecutions and of the Bar Kokba
Bar Kokba
insurrection, many of his homilies refer, explicitly or impliedly, to existence under such conditions (H. Grätz, "Gesch." iv. 79, note)
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Legio IV Flavia Felix
Legio quarta Flavia Felix ("Lucky Flavian Fourth Legion"), was a legion of the Imperial Roman army
Imperial Roman army
founded in AD 70 by the emperor Vespasian
Vespasian
(r. 69-79) from the cadre of the disbanded Legio IV Macedonica. The legion was active in Moesia Superior
Moesia Superior
in the first half of the 5th century. The legion symbol was a lion. During the Batavian rebellion, the IV Macedonica fought for Vespasian, but the emperor distrusted his men, probably because they had supported Vitellius
Vitellius
two years before. Therefore IV Macedonica was disbanded, and a new Fourth legion, called Flavian Felix was levied by the emperor, who gave the legio his nomen, Flavia. Since the symbol of the legion is a lion, it was probably levied in July/August 70. IV Flavia Felix was camped in Burnum, Dalmatia (modern Kistanje), where it replaced XI Claudia
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Legio XII Fulminata
The Legio duodecima Fulminata (" Thunderbolt
Thunderbolt
Twelfth Legion"), also known as Paterna, Victrix, Antiqua, Certa Constans, and Galliena, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. It was originally levied by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
in 58 BC and which accompanied him during the Gallic Wars until 49 BC. The unit was still guarding the Euphrates
Euphrates
River crossing near Melitene
Melitene
at the beginning of the 5th century. The legion's emblem was a thunderbolt (on a shield fulmen)
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Legio V Macedonica
Legio quinta Macedonica (the Fifth Macedonian Legion) was a Roman legion. It was probably originally levied in 43 BC by consul Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus and Octavian (later known as the Emperor Augustus). It was based in the Balkan
Balkan
provinces of Macedonia, Moesia and Dacia. In the Notitia Dignitatum
Notitia Dignitatum
records from beginning of the fifth century, the legion was still stationed in Dacia, with detachments stationed in the east and Egypt. The last known evidence shows the legion, or detachments from it, stationed in Egypt
Egypt
in the seventh century one or two years before the Islamic conquest of Egypt
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Roman Egypt
The Roman province
Roman province
of Egypt
Egypt
(Latin: Aegyptus, pronounced [ae̯ˈɡʏptʊs]; Greek: Αἴγυπτος Aigyptos [ɛ́ːɡyptos]) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Queen Cleopatra VII, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom
Ptolemaic Kingdom
of Egypt
Egypt
to the Roman Empire. The province encompassed most of modern-day Egypt
Egypt
except for the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
(which would later be conquered by Trajan). Aegyptus was bordered by the provinces of Creta et Cyrenaica to the West and Iudaea (later Arabia Petraea) to the East. The province came to serve as a major producer of grain for the empire and had a highly developed urban economy
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Legio X Gemina
Legio decima Gemina ("The Twins' Tenth Legion"), was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. It was one of the four legions used by Julius Caesar in 58 BC, for his invasion of Gaul. There are still records of the X Gemina in Vienna
Vienna
in the beginning of the 5th century. The legion symbol was a bull. Early on in its history, the legion was called X Equestris (mounted), because Caesar once used the legionaries as cavalry.Contents1 In Republican Service1.1 Gallic Wars 1.2 Augustus2 In Imperial Service2.1 Under the Flavian dynasty 2.2 2nd century 2.3 3rd century 2.4 4th century3 Epigraphic evidence 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksIn Republican Service[edit] Gallic Wars[edit]See also Legio X EquestrisIn the Gallic Wars, X Equestris played an important role on Caesar's military success and for this reason is sometimes said to be his favorite
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Legio II Traiana Fortis
Legio secunda Traiana, (Latin for "Trajan's Second Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army
Imperial Roman army
founded by emperor Trajan
Trajan
in 105, along with XXX Ulpia Victrix, for the campaigns in Dacia. There are still records of the II Traiana Fortis in Egypt in the middle of the 5th century. The legion's emblem was the demi-god Hercules.Contents1 Campaigns1.1 Parthian Campaign and Judean revolts 1.2 Siege in Alexandria 1.3 Syrian Rebellion 1.4 Campaign Against the Germanic Tribes 1.5 Move to Apollonopolis Magna2 See also 3 External links 4 Roman ReenactmentCampaigns[edit] Parthian Campaign and Judean revolts[edit] In 115, II Traiana Fortis was incorporated in the large army used for Trajan's Parthian Campaign. In 117, the legion was allocated in Iudaea, to ensure peace after the rebellion that was just ending
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Legio III Gallica
Legio tertia Gallica ("Gallic Third Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army
Roman army
founded around 49 BC by Gaius Julius Caesar for his civil war against The Republicans led by Pompey. The cognomen Gallica suggests that recruits were originally from Gaul. The legion was still active in Egypt in the early 4th century. The legion's symbol was a bull.Contents1 Under the Republic 2 Under the Empire2.1 Campaigning under Corbulo and transferring to the Danube 2.2 Year of the Four Emperors 2.3 In Syria3 Members 4 See also 5 External linksUnder the Republic[edit] The legion took part in all Julius Caesar's campaigns against his enemies, including the battles of Pharsalus and Munda. Following Caesar's death, III Gallica was integrated in the army of Mark Antony, a member of the Second Triumvirate, for his campaigns against the Parthians
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Roman Arabia
Arabia Petraea
Arabia Petraea
or Petrea, also known as Rome's Arabian Province (Latin: Provincia Arabia) or simply Arabia, was a frontier province of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
beginning in the 2nd century; it consisted of the former Nabataean Kingdom
Nabataean Kingdom
in Jordan, southern Levant, the Sinai Peninsula and northwestern Arabian Peninsula. Its capital was Petra. It was bordered on the north by Syria, on the west by Iudaea (merged with Syria
Syria
from AD 135) and Aegyptus, and on the south and east by the rest of Arabia, known as Arabia Deserta
Arabia Deserta
and Arabia Felix. The territory was annexed by Emperor Trajan, like many other eastern frontier provinces of the Roman Empire, but held onto, unlike Armenia, Mesopotamia and Assyria, well after Trajan's rule – its desert frontier being called the Limes Arabicus
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Capital Punishment
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a death sentence, whereas the act of carrying out the sentence is known as an execution. Crimes that are punishable by death are known as capital crimes or capital offences, and they commonly include offences such as murder, treason, espionage, war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide. Etymologically, the term capital (lit
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Legio X Fretensis
Legio X Fretensis
Legio X Fretensis
("Tenth legion of the Strait") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. It was founded by the young Gaius Octavius (later to become Augustus
Augustus
Caesar) in 41/40 BC to fight during the period of civil war that started the dissolution of the Roman Republic. X Fretensis is then recorded to have existed at least until the 410s. X Fretensis symbols were the bull — the holy animal of the goddess Venus (mythical ancestor of the gens Julia) — a ship (probably a reference to the Battles of Naulochus and/or Actium), the god Neptune, and a boar
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Killed In Action
Killed in action (KIA) is a casualty classification generally used by militaries to describe the deaths of their own combatants at the hands of hostile forces.[1] The United States
United States
Department of Defense, for example, says that those declared KIA need not have fired their weapons but have been killed due to hostile attack. KIAs do not come from incidents such as accidental vehicle crashes and other "non-hostile" events or terrorism. KIA can be applied both to front-line combat troops and to naval, air and support troops. Someone who is killed in action during a particular event is denoted with a † (dagger) beside their name to signify their death in that event or events. Further, KIA denotes one to have been killed in action on the battlefield whereas died of wounds (DOW) relates to someone who survived to reach a medical treatment facility
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Died Of Wounds
Killed in action (KIA) is a casualty classification generally used by militaries to describe the deaths of their own combatants at the hands of hostile forces.[1] The United States
United States
Department of Defense, for example, says that those declared KIA need not have fired their weapons but have been killed due to hostile attack. KIAs do not come from incidents such as accidental vehicle crashes and other "non-hostile" events or terrorism. KIA can be applied both to front-line combat troops and to naval, air and support troops. Someone who is killed in action during a particular event is denoted with a † (dagger) beside their name to signify their death in that event or events. Further, KIA denotes one to have been killed in action on the battlefield whereas died of wounds (DOW) relates to someone who survived to reach a medical treatment facility
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Genocide
European colonization of the AmericasDzungar genocide, 1750s Manifest DestinyIndian Removal, 1830s California Genocide, 1848–1873Circassian genocide, 1860s Selk'nam genocide, 1890s–1900s Herero and Namaqua genocide, 1904–1907 Greek genocide, 1914–1923 Assyrian genocide, 1914–1925 Armenian Genocide, 1915–1923 Libyan Genocide, 1923–1932Soviet genocide Ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing
in the Soviet UnionSoviet famine of 1932–33Holodomor, 1931–1933 Kazakhstan, 1930–1933Mass Deportations during World War IIKalmyks, 1943 Chechens and Ingush, 1944 Crimean Tatars, 1944Nazi Holoc
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