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Bar Kokhba Revolt
Decisive Roman victory: * An all-out defeat of Judean rebels * Large-scale destruction of Judean population by Roman troops * Suppression of Jewish
Jewish
religious and political autonomy by Hadrian * Jews banned from Jerusalem Territorial changes Judea
Judea
renamed and merged into the Syria Palaestina province. BELLIGERENTS Roman Empire
Roman Empire
Israel (Judea) under Bar Kokhba COMMANDERS AND LEADERS Hadrian
Hadrian
Tineius Rufus (DOW) Sextus Julius Severus Publicius Marcellus T. Haterius Nepos Q
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Legio X Gemina
LEGIO DECIMA GEMINA ("The Twins' Tenth Legion"), was a legion of the Imperial Roman army
Roman army
. It was one of the four legions used by Julius Caesar in 58 BC, for his invasion of Gaul
Gaul
. There are still records of the X Gemina in Vienna
Vienna
in the beginning of the 5th century. The legion symbol was a bull . Early on in its history, the legion was called X EQUESTRIS (mounted), because Caesar once used the legionaries as cavalry
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Legio V Macedonica
LEGIO QUINTA MACEDONICA (the FIFTH MACEDONIAN LEGION) was a Roman legion . It was probably originally levied in 43 BC by consul Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus and Octavian (later known as the Emperor Augustus
Augustus
). It was based in the Balkan
Balkan
provinces of Macedonia , Moesia and Dacia
Dacia
. In the Notitia Dignitatum
Notitia Dignitatum
records from beginning of the fifth century, the legion was still stationed in Dacia
Dacia
, with detachments stationed in the east and Egypt
Egypt
. The last known evidence shows the legion, or detachments from it, stationed in Egypt
Egypt
in the seventh century one or two years before the Islamic conquest of Egypt
Egypt

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Legio II Traiana Fortis
LEGIO SECUNDA TRAIANA, (Latin for "Trajan's Second Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army
Imperial Roman army
founded by emperor Trajan
Trajan
in 105, along with XXX Ulpia Victrix , for the campaigns in Dacia
Dacia
. There are still records of the II Traiana Fortis in Egypt in the middle of the 5th century. The legion's emblem was the demi-god Hercules
Hercules
. CONTENTS* 1 Campaigns * 1.1 Parthian Campaign and Judean revolts * 1.2 Siege in Alexandria
Alexandria
* 1.3 Syrian Rebellion * 1.4 Campaign Against the Germanic Tribes * 1.5 Move to Apollonopolis Magna * 2 See also * 3 External links * 4 Roman Reenactment CAMPAIGNSPARTHIAN CAMPAIGN AND JUDEAN REVOLTSIn 115, II Traiana Fortis was incorporated in the large army used for Trajan's Parthian Campaign
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Legio III Gallica
LEGIO TERTIA GALLICA ("Gallic Third Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army
Roman army
founded around 49 BC by Gaius Julius Caesar for his civil war against The Republicans led by Pompey
Pompey
. The cognomen Gallica suggests that recruits were originally from Gaul
Gaul
. The legion was still active in Egypt in the early 4th century. The legion's symbol was a bull . CONTENTS * 1 Under the Republic * 2 Under the Empire * 2.1 Campaigning under Corbulo and transferring to the Danube
Danube
* 2.2 Year of the Four Emperors
Year of the Four Emperors
* 2.3 In Syria
Syria
* 3 Members * 4 See also * 5 External links UNDER THE REPUBLICThe legion took part in all Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
's campaigns against his enemies, including the battles of Pharsalus and Munda
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Legio X Fretensis
LEGIO X FRETENSIS ("Tenth legion of the Strait") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army . It was founded by the young Gaius Octavius (later to become Augustus Caesar
Augustus Caesar
) in 41/40 BC to fight during the period of civil war that started the dissolution of the Roman Republic . X Fretensis is then recorded to have existed at least until the 410s. X Fretensis symbols were the bull — the holy animal of the goddess Venus (mythical ancestor of the gens Julia ) — a ship (probably a reference to the Battles of Naulochus and/or Actium ), the god Neptune , and a boar. The symbol of Taurus may also mean that it was organized between 20 April and 20 May
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Legio IV Flavia Felix
LEGIO QUARTA FLAVIA FELIX ("Lucky Flavian Fourth Legion"), was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded in AD 70 by the emperor Vespasian (r. 69-79) from the ashes of the Legio IV Macedonica . The legion was active in Moesia Superior in the first half of the 5th century. The legion symbol was a lion . During the Batavian rebellion , the IV Macedonica fought for Vespasian, but the emperor distrusted his men, probably because they had supported Vitellius two years before . Therefore IV Macedonica was disbanded, and a new Fourth legion, called Flavian Felix was levied by the emperor, who gave the legio his nomen , Flavia . Since the symbol of the legion is a lion, it was probably levied in July/August 70. IV Flavia Felix was camped in Burnum , Dalmatia (modern Kistanje ), where it replaced XI Claudia
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Roman Governor
A ROMAN GOVERNOR was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief administrator of Roman law
Roman law
throughout one or more of the many provinces constituting the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. A Roman governor
Roman governor
is also known as a propraetor or proconsul. The generic term in Roman legal language was Rector provinciae , regardless of the specific titles, which also reflect the province's intrinsic and strategic status, and corresponding differences in authority. By the time of the early empire , there were two types of provinces — senatorial and imperial — and several types of governor would emerge. Only proconsuls and propraetors fell under the classification of promagistrate
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Ancient Israel
The Kingdom of Israel
Israel
and the Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah
were related Iron Age kingdoms of the ancient Levant
Levant
. The Kingdom of Israel
Israel
emerged as an important local power by the 10th century BCE before falling to the Neo-Assyrian Empire in 722 BCE. Israel's southern neighbor, the Kingdom of Judah, emerged in the 8th or 9th century BCE and enjoyed a period of prosperity as a client state of first the Neo-Assyrian Empire and then the Neo-Babylonian Empire before a revolt against the latter led to its destruction in 586 BCE
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Genocide
GENOCIDE is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic , national , racial , or religious group) in whole or in part. The hybrid word "genocide" is a combination of the Greek word génos ("race, people") and the Latin suffix -cide ("act of killing"). The United Nations Genocide Convention , which was established in 1948, defines genocide as "acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group"
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Auxiliaries (Roman Military)
The AUXILIA ( Latin
Latin
, lit. "auxiliaries") constituted the standing non-citizen corps of the Imperial Roman army
Roman army
during the Principate
Principate
era (30 BC–284 AD), alongside the citizen legions . By the 2nd century, the Auxilia
Auxilia
contained the same number of infantry as the legions and in addition provided almost all of the Roman army's cavalry and more specialised troops (especially light cavalry and archers ). The auxilia thus represented three-fifths of Rome's regular land forces at that time. Like their legionary counterparts, auxiliary recruits were mostly volunteers, not conscripts
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Roman Legion
A ROMAN LEGION (from Latin
Latin
legio "military levy, conscription ", from legere "to choose") was the largest unit of the Roman army
Roman army
, involving from 3000 men in early times to over 5200 men in imperial times, consisting of centuries as the basic units. Until the middle of the first century, 10 cohorts (about 5,000 men) made up a Roman Legion. This was later changed to nine cohorts of standard size (with 6 centuries at 80 men each) and one cohort, the first cohort, of double strength (5 double-strength centuries with 160 men each). In the early Roman Kingdom
Roman Kingdom
the "legion" may have meant the entire Roman army
Roman army
but sources on this period are few and unreliable
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Capital Punishment
CAPITAL PUNISHMENT, also known as the DEATH PENALTY, is a government sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a DEATH SENTENCE, whereas the act of carrying out the sentence is known as an EXECUTION. Crimes that are punishable by death are known as CAPITAL CRIMES or CAPITAL OFFENCES, and they commonly include offences such as murder , treason , espionage , war crimes , crimes against humanity and genocide . Etymologically, the term capital (lit. "of the head", derived via the Latin capitalis from caput, "head") in this context alluded to execution by beheading. Fifty-six countries retain capital punishment, 103 countries have completely abolished it de jure for all crimes, six have abolished it for ordinary crimes (while maintaining it for special circumstances such as war crimes), and 30 are abolitionist in practice
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Legio XII Fulminata
The LEGIO DUODECIMA FULMINATA (" Thunderbolt
Thunderbolt
Twelfth Legion"), also known as Paterna, Victrix, Antiqua, Certa Constans, and Galliena, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army
Imperial Roman army
. It was originally levied by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
in 58 BC and which accompanied him during the Gallic Wars until 49 BC. The unit was still guarding the Euphrates
Euphrates
River crossing near Melitene at the beginning of the 5th century. The legion's emblem was a thunderbolt (on a shield fulmen ). In later centuries it came to be called commonly, but incorrectly, the Legio Fulminatrix, the THUNDERING LEGION
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Died Of Wounds
KILLED IN ACTION (KIA) is a casualty classification generally used by militaries to describe the deaths of their own combatants at the hands of hostile forces. The United States
United States
Department of Defense , for example, says that those declared KIA need not have fired their weapons but have been killed due to hostile attack. KIAs do not come from incidents such as accidental vehicle crashes and other "non-hostile" events or terrorism. KIA can be applied both to front-line combat troops and to naval, air and support troops. Someone who is killed in action during a particular event is denoted with a † (dagger ) beside their name to signify their death in that event or events. Further, KIA denotes one to have been killed in action on the battlefield whereas DIED OF WOUNDS (DOW) relates to someone who survived to reach a medical treatment facility
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum (286–402, Western ) Augusta Treverorum
Augusta Treverorum
Sirmium
Sirmium

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