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Banu Umayyad
The Banu Umayya (Arabic: بنو أمية‎), also known as the Umayyads (Arabic: الأمويون / بنو أمية‎ al-Umawiyyun), were a clan of the Quraysh
Quraysh
tribe descended from Umayya ibn Abd Shams. The clan staunchly opposed the Islamic prophet Muhammad, but eventually embraced Islam
Islam
before the latter's death in 632. A member of the clan, Uthman, went on to become the third Rashidun caliph in 644-656, while other members held various governorships. One of these governors, Mu'awiyah I, became caliph in 661 and established the Umayyad Caliphate
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Banu Taym
Banu Taym
Banu Taym
(Arabic: بنو تيم‎; alternatively transliterated as Banu Taim or Banu Tahim) is a sub-clan of the Quraish tribe, descended from Fihr ibn Malik and Adnan.Contents1 Ancestry 2 Notable Members 3 See also 4 ReferencesAncestry[edit] The tribe descended from
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Abu Zora Tarif
Abu Zora Tarif (fl. about 700) was an Umayyad general. He is best known for his participation in the Umayyad conquest of Hispania from July 710-712 AD[1] and was near Algeciras.[2] References[edit]^ Arthur Gilman (2004). The Saracens from the Earliest Times to the Fall of Baghdad. p. 329. ISBN 1417912480. Retrieved August 6, 2015.  ^ Tucker, Spencer C. (2009). A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. p. 208. ISBN 1851096728. Retrieved August 6, 2015. This biographical article about a person notable in connection with Islam is a stub
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Abd Al-Malik Ibn Marwan
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (Arabic: عبد الملك ابن مروان‎ ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān, 646 – 8 October 705) was the 5th Umayyad
Umayyad
caliph. He was born in Medina, Hejaz,[1][3] Abd al-Malik was a well-educated man and capable ruler who was able to solve many political problems that impeded his rule. The 14th-century Arab historian and philosopher Ibn Khaldun
Ibn Khaldun
stated that "`Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan was one of the greatest Arab and Muslim Caliphs
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Al-Walid I
Al-Walīd ibn ‘Abd al-Malik Arabic: الوليد بن عبد الملك‎House Banu Abd ShamsDynasty UmayyadFather Abd al-Malik ibn MarwanMother Walida bint al-Abbas[1]Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik (Arabic: الوليد بن عبد الملك‎) or Al-Walid I
Al-Walid I
(668 – 23 February 715) was an Umayyad Caliph
Caliph
who ruled from 705 until his death in 715. His reign saw the greatest expansion of the Caliphate, as successful campaigns were undertaken in Transoxiana
Transoxiana
in Central Asia, Sind, Hispania in far western Europe, and against the Byzantines. He poisoned the fourth Shi'a imam, Zayn al-Abidin.[2][3]Contents1 Biography 2 Conquests 3 Islamic culture and civilization 4 Sources 5 References 6 BibliographyBiography[edit] Walid was born in Medina
Medina
in 668 to Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan. Walid's mother was from the Central Arabian tribe of Banu Hanifah
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Sulayman Ibn Abd Al-Malik
Sulayman bin Abd al-Malik (Arabic: سليمان بن عبد الملك‎) (c. 674 – 22 September 717) was an Umayyad
Umayyad
caliph who ruled from 715 until 717. His father was Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, and he was a younger brother of the previous caliph, al-Walid I.Contents1 Early years 2 Assumption of power as caliph and his appointments 3 Policies as caliph 4 Naming of his successor 5 Death 6 References 7 SourcesEarly years[edit] Under the rule of his brother al-Walid he had been the governor of Palestine.[2] In the tribal politics of the Near East
Near East
at that time (the Qays-Yaman conflict) he allied himself to the Yamanis. When Yazid ibn al-Muhallab escaped from al-Hajjaj, he made his way to Sulayman in Palestine. Sulayman granted him refuge. Al-Hajjaj pressed al-Walid about this and the caliph commanded Sulayman to send him Yazid in chains
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Umar II
Umar
Umar
ibn Abd al-Aziz or Omar ibn Abd al-Aziz (2 November 682 (26th Safar, 63 AH) – February 720 (16th Rajab, 101 AH)) (Arabic: عمر بن عبد العزيز‎, translit. ʿ Umar
Umar
ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz) was an Umayyad
Umayyad
caliph who ruled from 717 to 720. He was also a cousin of the former caliph, being the son of Abd al-Malik's younger brother, Abd al-Aziz
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Yazid II
Yazid bin Abd al-Malik or Yazid II
Yazid II
(687 – 26 January 724) (Arabic: يزيد بن عبد الملك‎) was an Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliph
Caliph
who ruled from 720 until his death in 724.Contents1 Life 2 Death 3 References 4 SourcesLife[edit] Yazid married a daughter of Muhammad ibn Yusuf al-Thaqafi, the brother of the longtime governor of Iraq, al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf al-Thaqafi. Together they had a son, the future al-Walid II.[1] According to the medieval Persian historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Yazid came to power on the death of Umar II
Umar II
on February 10, 720.[2] His forces engaged in battle the Kharijites
Kharijites
with whom Umar had been negotiating. After initial setbacks, Yazid's troops prevailed and the Kharijite leader Shawdhab was killed. Yazid ibn al-Muhallab had escaped confinement on the death of Umar
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Hisham Ibn Abd Al-Malik
Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik
Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik
(691 – 6 February 743) (Arabic: هشام بن عبد الملك‎) was the 10th Umayyad
Umayyad
caliph who ruled from 724 until his death in 743. When he was born in 691 his mother named him after her father. Reign[edit] Inheriting the caliphate from his brother Yazid II, Hisham was ruling an empire with many different problems. He would, however, be effective in attending to these problems, and in allowing the Umayyad empire to continue as an entity. His long rule was an effective one, and it saw a rebirth of reforms that were originated by Umar bin Abd al-Aziz. Like his brother al-Walid I, Hisham was a great patron of the arts, and he again encouraged arts in the empire. He also encouraged the growth of education by building more schools, and perhaps most importantly, by overseeing the translation of numerous literary and scientific masterpieces into Arabic
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Al-Walid II
17 April 744 (aged 35) Cause of death: AssassinationFull nameWalid ibn Yazid ibn Abd al-MalikDynasty Umayyad, Marwanid branchFather Yazid bin Abd al-MalikWalid ibn Yazid or Walid II (709 – 17 April 744) (Arabic: الوليد بن يزيد‎) was an Umayyad
Umayyad
caliph who ruled from 743 until his Assassination in the year 744. He succeeded his uncle, Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik.Contents1 Life 2 Caliph 3 Bibliography 4 ReferencesLife[edit] As al-Walid grew older, Hisham became increasingly displeased with his nephew's behaviour (including an excess love for poetry and beautiful women) and considered passing the succession to Hisham's son instead. He spoke to al-Walid about his drinking of alcohol and commanded al-Walid to send away his best drinking companion
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Yazid III
Yazid ibn al-Walid ibn 'Abd al-Malik or Yazid III
Yazid III
(701 – 25 September 744) (Arabic: يزيد بن الوليد بن عبد الملك‎) was an Umayyad
Umayyad
caliph. He reigned for six months, from April 15 to October 3 or 4, 744, and died in that office.Contents1 Background 2 Rebellion 3 Reign 4 BibliographyBackground[edit] Yazid was the son of a Persian princess who had been given as a concubine to Caliph
Caliph
al-Walid I.[1] His mother was Shah-i Afrid, a daughter of Peroz
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Ibrahim Ibn Al-Walid
Ibrahim ibn Al-Walid (? – 25 January 750) (Arabic: ابراهيم ابن الوليد بن عبد الملك‎) was an Umayyad
Umayyad
caliph, and a son of Caliph
Caliph
al-Walid I (r. 705–715). He only ruled for a short time in 744 before he abdicated, and went into hiding out of fear of his political opponents. The shortness of this time and his incomplete acceptance led Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari
Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari
to state that he did not succeed in becoming caliph (v. 26, p. 247). However, at Tabari (p. 13) does record that Ibrahim as caliph did confirm the appointment of Abdallah ibn Umar as governor of Iraq. (v. 27, p. 13) Ibrahim was named heir apparent by his brother Yazid III. Marwan II decided to oppose Yazid III, and even though he later gave allegiance to Yazid, on the early death of that caliph, Marwan continued his own ambitions
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Marwan II
Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan or Marwan II
Marwan II
(691 – 6 August 750) (Arabic: مروان بن محمد بن مروان بن الحكم / ALA-LC: Marwān bin Muḥammad bin Marwān bin al-Ḥakam) was an Umayyad
Umayyad
caliph who ruled from 744 until 750 when he was killed. Much of his reign was dominated by the Third Fitna, and he was the last Umayyad
Umayyad
ruler to rule the united Caliphate
Caliphate
before the Abbasid Revolution toppled the Umayyad
Umayyad
dynasty.Contents1 Family 2 Reign 3 See also 4 Bibliography 5 ReferencesFamily[edit] Marwan ibn Muhammad was a member of the Marwanid household of the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate Reign[edit] In A.H. 114 (732–733) Caliph
Caliph
Hisham
Hisham
appointed Marwan governor of Armenia and Azerbaijan. In A.H
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Tribes Of Arabia
The tribes of Arabia are the clans that originated in the Arabian Peninsula. Much of the lineage provided before Ma'ad relies on biblical genealogy and therefore questions persist concerning the accuracy of this segment of Arab genealogy [1] The general consensus among 14th century Arabic genealogists[who?] is that Arabs are of three kinds: Al-Arab al-Ba'ida (Arabic: العرب البائدة‎), "The Extinct Arabs", were an ancient group of tribes of pre-history, that included the ‘Aad, the Thamud, the Tasm, the Jadis, the Imlaq (who included branches of Banu al-Samayda) and others. The Jadis and the Tasm were are said to have been exterminated by genocide. The Qur'an records that disappearance of the 'Aad and Thamud came of their decadence. Tecent archaeological excavations have uncovered inscriptions which reference 'Iram, once a major city of the 'Aad
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Muawiya II
Mu‘āwīyya or Muawiyah or Muaawiya (معاوية) is a male Arabic given name of disputed meaning. It was the name of the first Umayyad caliph.[1] Notable bearers of this name include: Muawiyah I (602–680), first Umayyad Caliph
Umayyad Caliph
(r. 661–680) Muawiya II (661–684), third Umayyad Caliph
Umayyad Caliph
(r. 683–684) Mu'awiya ibn Hudayj, Umayyad general and governor Mu'awiya ibn Hisham (died 737), Umayyad prince and general (fl. 725–737) Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya (born 1941), Prime-Minister, then President of MauritaniaPlaces[edit]Mu'awiya, BasmaReferences[edit]^ "Tareekh-ul-Khulafa". Scribd.com. 2010-09-26. Archived from the original on December 5, 2013. Retrieved 2014-03-27. External links[edit]Ruling on calling one’s son Mu’aawiyah and mention of some who bore this name "This page or section lists people that share the same given name
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Umayyad Family Tree
This is a family tree of the Umayyad
Umayyad
dynasty, whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams. Umayya's great-grandson Muawiyah I founded the Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
in 661, and transferred its capital to Damascus, Syria. The Sufyanid branch to which Muawiyah belonged ceased to exercise power following the abdication of Muawiya II in 684. Power shifted to the Marwanid branch, which continued to rule the caliphate until the Umayyads
Umayyads
were displaced and massacred by the Abbasids in 750 (see Battle of the Zab). An Umayyad
Umayyad
prince named Abd ar-Rahman managed to escape the massacre, and fled to the Iberian peninsula (Al-Andalus) where he established an independent emirate ruled from the city of Córdoba
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