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Bank
A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.[1] Lending
Lending
activities can be performed either directly or indirectly through capital markets. Due to their importance in the financial stability of a country, banks are highly regulated in most countries. Most nations have institutionalized a system known as fractional reserve banking under which banks hold liquid assets equal to only a portion of their current liabilities. In addition to other regulations intended to ensure liquidity, banks are generally subject to minimum capital requirements based on an international set of capital standards, known as the Basel Accords. Banking
Banking
in its modern sense evolved in the 14th century in the prosperous cities of Renaissance Italy
Renaissance Italy
but in many ways was a continuation of ideas and concepts of credit and lending that had their roots in the ancient world
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Christmas Club
The Christmas
Christmas
club is a savings program that was first offered by various banks and credit unions in the United States beginning in the first half of the 20th century, and including the Great Depression. The concept is that bank customers deposit a set amount of money each week into a special savings account, and receive the money back at the end of the year for Christmas
Christmas
shopping.Contents1 Origins 2 Promotion 3 Drawbacks 4 Trivia 5 References5.1 Notes 5.2 Citations 5.3 Bibliography6 External linksOrigins[edit] The first known Christmas
Christmas
club started in 1909, when Merkel Landis, treasurer of the Carlisle (Pennsylvania)
Carlisle (Pennsylvania)
Trust Company, introduced the first Christmas
Christmas
savings fund
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ATM Card
An ATM card is a payment card or dedicated payment card style card issued by a financial institution which enables a customer to access automated teller machines (ATMs). ATM cards are payment card size and style plastic cards with a magnetic stripe or a plastic smart card with a chip that contains a unique card number and some security information such as an expiration date or CVVC (CVV). ATM cards are known by a variety of names such as bank card, MAC (money access card), client card, key card or cash card, among others. Most payment cards, such as debit and credit cards can also function as ATM cards, although ATM-only cards are also available. Charge and proprietary cards cannot be used as ATM cards. The use of a credit card to withdraw cash at an ATM is treated differently to a POS transaction, usually attracting interest charges from the date of the cash withdrawal
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Giro
A giro (/ˈdʒaɪroʊ, ˈdʒɪəroʊ, ˈʒɪəroʊ/),[1] or giro transfer, is a payment transfer from one bank account to another bank account and instigated by the payer, not the payee.[2] Giros are primarily a European phenomenon; although electronic payment systems such as the Automated Clearing House
Automated Clearing House
exist in the United States
United States
and Canada, it is not possible to perform third party transfers with them. In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and in other countries the term giro may refer to a specific system once operated by the post office.[3] In the UK, the giro service was originally known as National Giro
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Lists Of Banks
Lists of banks are contained in the following articles:Contents1 By continent 2 By super continent or intercontinental region 3 Other lists 4 See alsoBy continent[edit] List of banks in Africa
List of banks in Africa
– Each country in Africa has a list of banks operating in that country List of
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Loan
In finance, a loan is the lending of money from one individual, organization or entity to another individual, organization or entity. A loan is a debt provided by an organization or individual to another entity at an interest rate, and evidenced by a promissory note which specifies, among other things, the principal amount of money borrowed, the interest rate the lender is charging, and date of repayment. A loan entails the reallocation of the subject asset(s) for a period of time, between the lender and the borrower. In a loan, the borrower initially receives or borrows an amount of money, called the principal, from the lender, and is obligated to pay back or repay an equal amount of money to the lender at a later time. The loan is generally provided at a cost, referred to as interest on the debt, which provides an incentive for the lender to engage in the loan
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Time Deposit
A time deposit or term deposit (also known as a certificate of deposit in the United States) is a deposit with a specified period of maturity and earns interest.[1] It is a money deposit at a banking institution that cannot be withdrawn for a specific term or period of time (unless a penalty is paid).[citation needed] When the term is over it can be withdrawn or it can be held for another term. Generally speaking, the longer the term the better the yield on the money
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Electronic Bill Payment
Electronic bill payment is a feature of online, mobile and telephone banking, similar in its effect to a giro, allowing a customer of a financial institution to transfer money from their transaction or credit card account to a creditor or vendor such as a public utility, department store or an individual to be credited against a specific account. These payments are typically executed electronically as a direct deposit through a national payment system, operated by the banks or in conjunction with the government. Payment is typically initiated by the payer but can also be set up as a direct debit. In addition to the bill payment facility, most banks will also offer various features with their electronic bill payment systems
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Financial Services
Financial services
Financial services
are the economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses a broad range of businesses that manage money, including credit unions, banks, credit-card companies, insurance companies, accountancy companies, consumer-finance companies, stock brokerages, investment funds, individual managers and some government-sponsored enterprises.[1] Financial services
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Depository Bank
A depository bank (U.S. usage) or depositary bank (predominantly EU usage) is a specialist financial entity which, depending on jurisdiction, facilitates investment in securities markets. U.S. Depository Banks[edit] In the United States, a depository is a bank organized in the US which provides all the stock transfer and agency services in connection with a depositary receipt program. This function includes arranging for a custodian to accept deposits of ordinary shares, issuing the negotiable receipts which back up the shares, maintaining the register of holders to reflect all transfers and exchanges, and distributing dividends in U.S. dollars. Depositary Banks in the European Union[edit] In the EU, a depositary is a financial institution which provides fiduciary/custodian services to Investment Funds authorised to trade in any EU jurisdiction as a UCITS or Alternative Investment Fund
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Electronic Funds Transfer
Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) is the electronic transfer of money from one bank account to another, either within a single financial institution or across multiple institutions, via computer-based systems, without the direct intervention of bank staff. EFT transactions are known by a number of names
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Automated Clearing House
Automated Clearing House
Automated Clearing House
(ACH) is an electronic network for financial transactions in the United States. ACH processes large volumes of credit and debit transactions in batches. ACH credit transfers include direct deposit, payroll and vendor payments. ACH direct debit transfers include consumer payments on insurance premiums, mortgage loans, and other kinds of bills. Debit transfers also include new applications such as the point-of-purchase (POP) check conversion pilot program sponsored by the National Automated Clearing House Association (NACHA). Both the government and the commercial sectors use ACH payments
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Savings Account
A savings account is a deposit account held at a retail bank that pays interest but cannot be used directly as money in the narrow sense of a medium of exchange (for example, by writing a cheque). These accounts let customers set aside a portion of their liquid assets while earning a monetary return. The other major types of deposit accounts are the transactional account (usually known as a "checking" (US) or "current" (UK) account), money market account, and time deposit.Contents1 Regulations1.1 United States2 References 3 External linksRegulations[edit] United States[edit] In the United States, the term "savings deposit" includes a deposit or an account that meets the requirements of Sec. 204.2(d)(1) of Regulation D (FRB). The depositor is permitted to make up to 6 pre-authorized transfers or withdrawals (excluding withdrawals via an automated teller machine) per month or a statement cycle of at least four weeks
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Retail Banking
Retail banking, also known as consumer banking, is the provision of services by a bank to the general public, rather than to companies, corporations or other banks, which are often described as wholesale banking. Banking services which are regarded as retail include provision of savings and transactional accounts, mortgages, personal loans, debit cards, and credit cards. Retail banking
Retail banking
is also distinguished from investment banking or commercial banking. It may also refer to a division or department of a bank which deals with individual customers. In the U.S., the term commercial bank is used for a normal bank to distinguish it from an investment bank. After the Great Depression, the Glass–Steagall Act
Glass–Steagall Act
required normal banks to only engage in banking activities, while investment banks were limited to capital market activities
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Savings Bank
A savings bank is a financial institution whose primary purpose is accepting savings deposits and paying interest on those deposits. They originated in Europe during the 18th century with the aim of providing access to savings products to all levels in the population. Often associated with social good these early banks were often designed to encourage low income people to save money and have access to banking services. They were set up by governments or by socially committed groups or organisations such as with credit unions
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Industrial Loan Company
An industrial loan company (ILC) or industrial bank is a financial institution in the United States
United States
that lends money, and may be owned by non-financial institutions. Though such banks offer FDIC-insured deposits and are subject to FDIC and state regulator oversight, a debate exists to allow parent companies such as Wal-Mart
Wal-Mart
to remain unregulated by the financial regulators. "FDIC-insured entities are subject to Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act, which limits bank transactions with affiliates, including the parent company." (FDIC.gov) The ILC is permitted to have branches in multiple states (which is permitted by many states on a reciprocal basis). They are state-chartered, and insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. They are currently chartered by seven states, with most chartered by Utah
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