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Banisteriopsis Caapi
BANISTERIOPSIS CAAPI, also known as AYAHUASCA, CAAPI or YAGé, is a South American liana of the family Malpighiaceae . It is used to prepare ayahuasca , a decoction with a long history of entheogenic uses as a medicine and "plant teacher" among the indigenous peoples of the Amazon Rainforest
Amazon Rainforest
. It contains harmine , harmaline , and tetrahydroharmine , all of which are both beta-carboline harmala alkaloids and MAOIs . The MAOIs in B. caapi allow the primary psychoactive compound, DMT (which is introduced from the other primary ingredient in ayahausca, the Psychotria viridis plant), to be orally active. The stems contain 0.11-0.83% beta-carbolines, with harmine and tetrahydroharmine as the major components. Alkaloids are present in all parts of the plant. According to The CRC World Dictionary of Plant
Plant
Names by Umberto Quattrocchi, the naming of B
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Plant Teacher
PLANT TEACHER is a 2011 novel by Ellen Alderton writing as Caroline Alethia. It has been recognized by various indie awards including finalist in the International Book Awards , runner up in the Green Book Festival, honorable mention in the Hollywood Book Festival , honorable mention in the Paris Book Festival , and honorable mention in the Halloween Book Festival . It was a winner of the best travel/essay fiction category in the 2012 Global Ebook Awards . The novel, portraying a group of American expatriates in Bolivia living against the backdrop of an Evo Morales administration aggrandizing power, has been described as "powerful" and a "must-read" by Huffington Post contributor Joel Hirst
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Parkinsonism
PARKINSONISM is a clinical syndrome characterized by tremor , bradykinesia , rigidity , and postural instability . Parkinsonism is found in Parkinson\'s disease (after which it is named), however a wide range of other causes may lead to this set of symptoms, including some toxins , a few metabolic diseases , and a handful of neurological conditions other than Parkinson's disease. About 7% of people with parkinsonism have developed their symptoms following treatment with particular medications. Side effect of medications, mainly neuroleptic antipsychotics especially the phenothiazines (such as perphenazine and chlorpromazine ), thioxanthenes (such as flupenthixol and zuclopenthixol) and butyrophenones (such as haloperidol), piperazines (such as ziprasidone), and rarely, antidepressants. The incidence of drug-induced parkinsonism increases with age. Drug-induced parkinsonism tends to remain at its presenting level, not progress like Parkinson's disease
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Dopamine
DOPAMINE (DA, contracted from 3,4-DIHYDROXYPHENETHYLAMINE) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body. It is an amine synthesized by removing a carboxyl group from a molecule of its precursor chemical L-DOPA , which is synthesized in the brain and kidneys. Dopamine
Dopamine
is also synthesized in plants and most animals. In the brain , dopamine functions as a neurotransmitter —a chemical released by neurons (nerve cells) to send signals to other nerve cells. The brain includes several distinct dopamine pathways , one of which plays a major role in reward-motivated behavior . Most types of rewards increase the level of dopamine in the brain, and many addictive drugs increase dopamine neuronal activity. Other brain dopamine pathways are involved in motor control and in controlling the release of various hormones
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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Amazon Rainforest
The AMAZON RAINFOREST (Portuguese : Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Spanish : Selva Amazónica, Amazonía or usually Amazonia; French : Forêt amazonienne; Dutch : Amazoneregenwoud), also known in English as AMAZONIA or the AMAZON JUNGLE , is a moist broadleaf forest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin
Amazon basin
of South America. This basin encompasses 7,000,000 square kilometres (2,700,000 sq mi), of which 5,500,000 square kilometres (2,100,000 sq mi) are covered by the rainforest. This region includes territory belonging to nine nations
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Paywall
Restricting access to Internet content via a paid subscription is often called a PAYWALL. Three high level models of paywall have emerged: hard paywalls that allow no free content and prompt the user straight away to pay in order to read, listen or watch the content, soft paywalls that allow some free content, such as an abstract or summary, and metered paywalls that allow a set number of free articles that a reader can access over a specific period of time, allow more flexibility in what users can view without subscribing. Newspapers started implementing paywalls on their websites in the mid-2010s to increase their revenue, which had been diminishing due to a decline in paid print readership and advertising revenue. Academic papers are often subject to a paywall, and available typically to researchers via academic libraries that subscribe
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United States Patent Office
The UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE (USPTO) is an agency in the U.S. Department of Commerce that issues patents to inventors and businesses for their inventions, and trademark registration for product and intellectual property identification. The USPTO is "unique among federal agencies because it operates solely on fees collected by its users, and not on taxpayer dollars". Its "operating structure is like a business in that it receives requests for services—applications for patents and trademark registrations—and charges fees projected to cover the cost of performing the services provide". The USPTO is based in Alexandria, Virginia
Alexandria, Virginia
, after a 2005 move from the Crystal City area of neighboring Arlington , Virginia
Virginia

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John Banister (naturalist)
JOHN BAPTIST BANISTER (1654 – May 1692) was an English clergyman and one of the first university-trained naturalists in North America. His primary focus was botany but he also studied insects and molluscs. He was sent out as a missionary chaplain by the garden-loving Bishop Henry Compton , with whom he soon established a correspondence. Banister was first in Barbados
Barbados
in the West Indies
West Indies
and then by April 1679 in Virginia
Virginia
, where, while serving a rector of the parish of Charles City he became one of Bishop Compton's most energetic plant collectors , "the first Virginia
Virginia
botanist of any note". Banister matriculated at Magdalen College, Oxford
Magdalen College, Oxford
, where he could see and study the American plants grown from seed in the Oxford Physic Garden under the care of Dr. Robert Morison
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Gonzales V. O Centro Espirita Beneficente Uniao Do Vegetal
GONZALES V. O CENTRO ESPIRITA BENEFICENTE UNIAO DO VEGETAL, 546 U.S. 418 (2006), was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that, under the Religious Freedom Restoration Act , the government had failed to show a compelling interest in prosecuting religious adherents for drinking a sacramental tea containing a Schedule I controlled substance . After the federal government seized its sacramental tea, the União do Vegetal (UDV), the New Mexican branch of a Brazilian church that imbibes ayahuasca in its services, sued, claiming the seizure was illegal, and sought to ensure future importation of the tea for religious use. The church won a preliminary injunction from the United States District Court for the District of New Mexico
New Mexico
, which was affirmed on appeal. The Supreme Court affirmed
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University Of Michigan Herbarium
The UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN HERBARIUM is the herbarium of the University of Michigan
University of Michigan
in Ann Arbor, Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan
, in the United States. One of the most-extensive botanical collections in the world, the herbarium has some 1.7 million specimens of vascular plants , algae , bryophytes , fungi , and lichens , and is a valuable resource for teaching and research in biology and botany. The herbarium includes many rare and extinct species . CONTENTS * 1 Administration * 2 History * 3 Collections * 4 Notes * 5 External links ADMINISTRATIONFormerly an independent unit of the University of Michigan
University of Michigan
College of Literature, Science, and the Arts (LSA), the herbarium is now part of the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Biology
within LSA. The herbarium is located at 3600 Varsity Drive in Ann Arbor
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Controlled Drugs And Substances Act
Provincial and territorial executive councils Premiers Legislative ( Queen-in-Parliament ) Federal parliament Senate Speaker of the Senate Government Leader in the Senate Opposition Leader in the Senate Senate divisions House of Commons Speaker of the house Government Leader in the house Opposition Leader in the house Her Majesty\'s Loyal Opposition Leader of the Opposition Shadow cabinet Provincial and territorial parliaments Judicial (Queen-on-the-Bench ) Court system Supreme court Federal chief justice ( Beverley McLachlin ) Provincial and territorial courts Provincial chief justices Constitution
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Parasite
In biology /ecology , PARASITISM is a non-mutual relationship between species , where one species, the PARASITE, benefits at the expense of the other, the host . Traditionally parasite (in biological usage) referred primarily to organisms visible to the naked eye, or macroparasites (such as helminths ). Parasites can be microparasites , which are typically smaller, such as protozoa , viruses , and bacteria . Examples of parasites include the plants mistletoe and cuscuta , and animals such as hookworms . Unlike predators , parasites typically do not kill their host, are generally much smaller than their host, and will often live in or on their host for an extended period. Both are special cases of consumer-resource interactions
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Purgative
LAXATIVES, PURGATIVES, or APERIENTS are substances that loosen stools and increase bowel movements . They are used to treat and/or prevent constipation . Laxatives vary as to how they work and the side effects they may have. Certain stimulant , lubricant and saline laxatives are used to evacuate the colon for rectal and bowel examinations, and may be supplemented by enemas under certain circumstances. Sufficiently high doses of laxatives may cause diarrhea . Some laxatives combine more than one active ingredient. Laxatives may be oral or suppository in form
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Genus
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA /ˈdʒɛnərə/ ) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In binomial nomenclature , the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis
Felis
silvestris are two species within the genus Felis
Felis
. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae . The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist . The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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