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Balthazar Johannes Vorster
BALTHAZAR JOHANNES VORSTER (Afrikaans pronunciation: ; 13 December 1915 – 10 September 1983), better known as JOHN VORSTER, served as the Prime Minister of South Africa from 1966 to 1978 and as the fourth State President of South Africa from 1978 to 1979. Vorster was known for his staunch adherence to apartheid , overseeing (as Minister of Justice) the Rivonia Trial in which Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
was sentenced to life imprisonment for sabotage , and (as Prime Minister) the Terrorism Act , the complete abolition of non-white political representation , the Soweto
Soweto
Riots and the Steve Biko
Steve Biko
crisis. He conducted a more pragmatic foreign policy than his predecessors in an effort to improve relations between the white minority government and South Africa's neighbours, particularly after the break-up of the Portuguese colonial empire
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Democratic Party (South Africa)
The DEMOCRATIC PARTY (DP) was the name of the South African political party now called the Democratic Alliance . Although the Democratic Party name dates from 1989, the party existed under other labels throughout the apartheid years, when it was the Parliamentary opposition to the ruling National Party 's policies. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 History * 3 Election results * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links BACKGROUNDThe Progressive Federal Party had formed the main parliamentary opposition to the Apartheid regime in the whites-only House of Assembly since 1977. But the party was ousted as the official opposition in the 1987 election and pushed into third place behind the far-right Conservative Party, which opposed even the limited reforms the NP had recently implemented
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Conservative Party Of South Africa
The CONSERVATIVE PARTY OF SOUTH AFRICA (KONSERWATIEWE PARTY VAN SUID-AFRIKA in Afrikaans ) was a hard right party that wished to conserve many aspects of apartheid in the system's final decade, and formed the official opposition in the white-only House of Assembly in the last seven years of minority rule. It declined quickly after apartheid ended, before being merged with the Freedom Front in 2004
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End Conscription Campaign
The END CONSCRIPTION CAMPAIGN was an anti-apartheid organisation allied to the United Democratic Front (UDF) and composed of conscientious objectors and their supporters in South Africa . It was formed in 1983 to oppose the conscription of all white South African men into military service in the South African Defence Force
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Federation Of South African Trade Unions
The FEDERATION OF SOUTH AFRICAN TRADE UNIONS (FOSATU) was a trade union federation formed at a congress over the weekend of 14–15 April 1979 in Hammanskraal and officially launched five days later on 20 April. Its roots lay in the unions which had emerged from the spontaneous 1973 strike wave by black workers in Durban
Durban
and Pinetown (part of the " Durban
Durban
Moment "). FOSATU's constitution enshrined the principles of workers\' control of their trade unions, non-racialism, worker independence from party politics, international worker solidarity and trade union unity. It strove to build a tight national federation to work towards an industrial workers' bloc firmly based in strong grassroots organisation on the factory floor
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Progressive Party (South Africa)
The PROGRESSIVE PARTY (Afrikaans : Progressiewe Party) was a liberal party in South Africa
South Africa
which, during apartheid, were considered as the "left-wing" of the all-white parliament. The party represents the legalized opposition to apartheid within South Africa's white minority, having opposed the ruling National Party\'s policies of apartheid , and championed the Rule of Law. For 13 years its only member of parliament was Helen Suzman . It was later renamed the Progressive Reform Party in 1975, and then Progressive Federal Party in 1977. The modern Democratic Alliance name the party as its earliest predecessor. The Progressive Party of South Africa
South Africa
is not to be confused with the much earlier Progressive Party of the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
, which was founded on very different, pro-imperialist policies and which became the "Union Party" in 1908
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Civil Cooperation Bureau
The South African CIVIL COOPERATION BUREAU (CCB) was a government-sponsored death squad during the apartheid era that operated under the authority of Defence Minister General Magnus Malan . The Truth and Reconciliation Committee pronounced the CCB guilty of numerous killings, and suspected more killings
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Black Sash
The BLACK SASH was a non-violent white women's resistance organization that was founded on 19 May 1955 in South Africa
South Africa
by Jean Sinclair, Ruth Foley, Elizabeth McLaren, Tertia Pybus, Jean Bosazza, and Helen Newton-Thompson. The founding members gathered for tea in Johannesburg before they decided to organize a movement against the Senate Act. They succeeded to hold a vigil of 2 000 women who marched from Joubert Park to the city hall. The name of the organization was inspired by women wearing black sashes over one shoulder as they held silent vigils against discriminatory laws. The Black Sash
Black Sash
initially campaigned against the removal of Coloured (mixed-race) voters from the voters' roll in the Cape Province
Cape Province
by the National Party government
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African National Congress
The AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa\'s governing social democratic political party. It has been the ruling party of post-apartheid South Africa
South Africa
on the national level, beginning with the election of Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
in the 1994 election , the first after the end of apartheid. Today, the ANC remains the dominant political party in South Africa, winning every election since 1994. Its leader Jacob Zuma is the incumbent head of state. Founded on 8 January 1912 by John Langalibalele Dube in Bloemfontein as the South African Native National Congress, its primary mission was give voting rights to black and mixed race Africans and, from the 1940s, to end Apartheid
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Azanian People's Liberation Army
The AZANIAN PEOPLE\'S LIBERATION ARMY (APLA), formerly known as POQO, was the military wing of the Pan Africanist Congress , an African nationalist movement in South Africa
South Africa
. After attacks on and the murder of several white families the APLA was subsequently classified as a terrorist organisation by the South African National government and the United States, and banned. APLA was disbanded and integrated into the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) in June 1994. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 2.1 Formation and early resistance * 2.2 Leadership struggles in exile * 2.3 Attacks on white civilians * 2.4 End of the armed struggle * 2.5 Post-1994 * 3 See also * 4 Further reading * 5 References ETYMOLOGYIn 1968 the "Azanian People's Liberation Army" replaced defunct "Poqo" as the armed wing of the PAC. Its name was derived from AZANIA, the ancient Greek name for Southern Africa
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Inkatha Freedom Party
The INKATHA FREEDOM PARTY (IFP) is a political party in South Africa. Since its founding, it has been led by Mangosuthu Buthelezi . It is currently the fourth largest party in the National Assembly of South Africa , having lost almost half its seats and votes in the 2014 general election and yielding third place to the newly formed Economic Freedom Fighters
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Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging
The AFRIKANER WEERSTANDSBEWEGING ( Afrikaner
Afrikaner
Resistance Movement) (AWB) is a South African neo-nazi separatist political and paramilitary organisation, often described as a white supremacist group. Since its founding in 1973, it has been dedicated to secessionist Afrikaner nationalism and the creation of an independent Boer
Boer
- Afrikaner
Afrikaner
republic or "Volkstaat/Boerestaat " in part of South Africa. In its heyday in the 1980s and 1990s, when the nation was moving toward sharing political power with Black people, the organisation received much publicity. When the Afrikaners' National Party gained control of the government in the elections of 1948, it began to introduce official apartheid . The AWB was formed in 1973 by Eugène Terre\'Blanche and six other far-right Afrikaners. Terre'blanche remained the leader until he was murdered on his farm in 2010
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Reform Party (South Africa)
The REFORM PARTY (Afrikaans : Reformiste Party) was an anti-apartheid political party that existed for just five months in 1975 and is one of the predecessor parties to the Democratic Alliance . The Reform Party was created on 11 February by a group of four Members of Parliament (MPs) who left the United Party under the guidance of the leader of the United Party in the Transvaal , Harry Schwarz
Harry Schwarz
, who became the party's leader. Schwarz and others were staunchly opposed to apartheid and called for a much more rigorous opposition to the National Party. They said that they no longer felt the UP was "the vehicle in which we can travel the path of verligtheid". The party had four MPs, two senators, ten members of the Transvaal Provincial Council , 14 out of the 36 Johannesburg City Councillors and four Randburg City Councillors. This made it the official opposition in the Transvaal Provincial Council
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Progressive Federal Party
The PROGRESSIVE FEDERAL PARTY (PFP) (Afrikaans : Progressiewe Federale Party) was a South African political party formed in 1977. It advocated power-sharing in South Africa
South Africa
through a federal constitution, in place of apartheid . Its leader was Colin Eglin , who was succeeded by Frederik van Zyl Slabbert and then Zach de Beer , but its best known parliamentarian was Helen Suzman , who was for many years the only member of the whites -only parliament to speak out against the apartheid regime. CONTENTS * 1 Formation * 2 History * 3 Leaders * 4 See also * 5 References FORMATIONThe party was preceded by the Progressive Party as the liberal opposition to the National Party. While the main opposition United Party contained liberal factions, the PP had for many years been the only purely liberal party represented in parliament
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South African Defence Force
The SOUTH AFRICAN DEFENCE FORCE (SADF) comprised the South African armed forces from 1957 until 1994. Shortly before the state reconstituted itself as a republic in 1961, the former Union Defence Force was officially succeeded by the SADF, which was established by the Defence Act (No. 44) of 1957. The SADF, in turn, was superseded by the South African National Defence Force in 1994. The SADF was organised to perform a dual mission: to counter possible insurgency in all forms, and to maintain a conventional military arm which could defend the republic's borders, making retaliatory strikes as necessary
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South African Council Of Churches
South African Council of Churches Catholic display:none;"> Anglican Church Reformed Evangelical Anglican Church Roman Catholicism
Catholicism
Holiness display:none;"> Die Heilsleër Zion Christian
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