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Balthazar Johannes Vorster
Balthazar Johannes "B. J." Vorster (Afrikaans pronunciation: [ˈbaltɑːzar jʊəˈhanəs ˈfɔrstər]; 13 December 1915 – 10 September 1983), better known as John Vorster, served as the Prime Minister of South Africa
South Africa
from 1966 to 1978 and as the fourth State President of South Africa
South Africa
from 1978 to 1979. Vorster was known for his staunch adherence to apartheid, overseeing (as Minister of Justice) the Rivonia Trial
Rivonia Trial
in which Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
was sentenced to life imprisonment for sabotage, and (as Prime Minister) the Terrorism Act, the complete abolition of non-white political representation, the Soweto
Soweto
Riots and the Steve Biko
Steve Biko
crisis
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South African Musicians' Alliance
The South African Musicians' Alliance (SAMA) is a union, artist collective, and resistance movement formed by musicians in South Africa who opposed the censorship and suppression of the apartheid regime.[1] The alliance was formed sometime before 1983.[2] SAMA musicians flouted the government's imposed racial segregation and restrictions on music content.[1] Three of SAMA's priorities were freedom of speech, freedom of movement, and freedom of association.[1] One prominent spokesperson of the organisation was pianist Rashid Lanie.[3][4] See also[edit]Internal resistance to apartheidReferences[edit]^ a b c Hall, Patricia (ed.). " Censorship
Censorship
from Apartheid
Apartheid
to Post- Apartheid
Apartheid
South Africa". The Oxford Handbook of Music Censorship. Oxford University Press. p. 597. Retrieved 2017-11-26.  ^ Ansell, Gwen, ed. (2005). "Jazz for the Struggle, and the Struggle for Jazz"
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Progressive Party (South Africa)
The Progressive Party (Afrikaans: Progressiewe Party) was a liberal party in South Africa
South Africa
which, during apartheid, was considered the left wing of the all-white parliament. The party represented the legal opposition to apartheid within South Africa's white minority, having opposed the ruling National Party's policies of apartheid, and championed the Rule of Law.[1] For 13 years its only member of parliament was Helen Suzman.[2] It was later renamed the Progressive Reform Party in 1975, and then Progressive Federal Party
Progressive Federal Party
in 1977
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African National Congress
The African National Congress
African National Congress
(ANC) is the Republic of South Africa's governing political party. It has been the ruling party of post-apartheid South Africa
South Africa
on the national level, beginning with the election of Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
in the 1994 election. Today, the ANC remains the dominant political party in South Africa, winning every election since 1994
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Azanian People's Liberation Army
The Azanian People's Liberation Army (APLA), formerly known as Poqo,[1] was the military wing of the Pan Africanist Congress, an African nationalist
African nationalist
movement in South Africa. After attacks on and the murder of several white families the APLA was subsequently classified as a terrorist organisation by the South African National government and the United States, and banned.[2] APLA was disbanded and integr
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Inkatha Freedom Party
The Inkatha Freedom Party
Inkatha Freedom Party
(IFP) is a political party in South Africa. Since its founding, it has been led by Mangosuthu Buthelezi. It is currently the fourth largest party in the National Assembly of South Africa, having lost almost half its seats and votes in the 2014 general election and yielding third place to the newly formed Economic Freedom Fighters.Contents1 Policies 2 History2.1 Post-apartheid politics 2.2 Gavin Woods report3 Elections3.1 20093.1.1 Political violence 3.1.2 Fraud charges at uMhlabuyalingana 3.1.3 Final drive 3.1.4 Worst-ever performance 3.1.5 Post-election efforts4 Election results4.1 National elections 4.2 Provincial elections4.2.1 KwaZulu-Natal
KwaZulu-Natal
provincial elections4.3 Municipal elections5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksPolicies[edit]This section does not cite any sources
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Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging
The Afrikaner
Afrikaner
Weerstandsbeweging (AWB), in English the Afrikaner Resistance Movement, is a South African neo-Nazi separatist political and paramilitary organisation, often described as a white supremacist group.[1][2][3][4] Since its founding in 1973 by Eugène Terre'Blanche and six other far-right Afrikaners, it has been dedicated to secessionist Afrikaner nationalism
Afrikaner nationalism
and the creation of an independent Boer- Afrikaner
Afrikaner
republic or "Volkstaat/Boerestaat" in part of South Africa
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Black Sash
The Black Sash
Black Sash
was a non-violent white women's resistance organization that was founded on 19 May 1955 in South Africa
South Africa
by Jean Sinclair, Ruth Foley, Elizabeth McLaren, Tertia Pybus, Jean Bosazza, and Helen Newton-Thompson.[1] The founding members gathered for tea in Johannesburg before they decided to organize a movement against the Senate Act. They succeeded to hold a vigil of 2 000 women who marched from Joubert Park
Joubert Park
to the city hall.[2] The name of the organization was inspired by women wearing black sashes over one shoulder as they held silent vigils against discriminatory laws.[3] The Black Sash
Black Sash
initially campaigned against the removal of Coloured (mixed-race) voters from the voters' roll in the Cape Province
Cape Province
by the National Party government
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Civil Cooperation Bureau
The South African Civil Cooperation Bureau
Civil Cooperation Bureau
(CCB) was a government-sponsored death squad[1] during the apartheid era that operated under the authority of Defence Minister General Magnus Malan. The Truth and Reconciliation Committee pronounced the CCB guilty of numerous killings, and suspected more killings.[2][3][4][5]Contents1 Forerunners and contemporaries 2 Establishment 3 Structure3.1 Executive 3.2 Management b
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Conservative Party Of South Africa
The Conservative Party of South Africa
Conservative Party of South Africa
(Konserwatiewe Party van Suid-Afrika in Afrikaans) was a right wing party that wished to preserve many aspects of apartheid in the system's final decade, and formed the official opposition in the white-only House of Assembly in the last seven years of minority rule
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Democratic Party (South Africa)
The Democratic Party (DP) was the name of the South African political party now called the Democratic Alliance. Although the Democratic Party name dates from 1989, the party existed under other labels throughout the apartheid years, when it was the Parliamentary opposition to the ruling National Party's policies.Contents1 Background 2 History 3 Election results 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksBackground[edit] The Progressive Federal Party
Progressive Federal Party
had formed the main parliamentary opposition to the Apartheid
Apartheid
regime in the whites-only House of Assembly since 1977. But the party was ousted as the official opposition in the 1987 election and pushed into third place behind the far-right Conservative Party, which opposed even the limited reforms the NP had recently implemented
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End Conscription Campaign
The End Conscription
Conscription
Campaign was an anti-apartheid organisation allied to the United Democratic Front (UDF) and composed of conscientious objectors and their supporters in South Africa
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Federation Of South African Trade Unions
The Federation of South African Trade Unions
Federation of South African Trade Unions
(FOSATU) was a trade union federation formed at a congress over the weekend of 14–15 April 1979 in Hammanskraal
Hammanskraal
and officially launched five days later on 20 April.[1][2] Its roots lay in the unions which had emerged from the spontaneous 1973 strike wave by black workers in Durban
Durban
and Pinetown (part of the " Durban
Durban
Moment").[3] FOSATU's constitution enshrined the principles of workers' control of their trade unions, non-racialism, worker independence from party politics, international worker solidarity and trade union unity
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Reform Party (South Africa)
The Reform Party (Afrikaans: Reformiste Party) was an anti-apartheid political party that existed for just five months in 1975 and is one of the predecessor parties to the Democratic Alliance. The Reform Party was created on 11 February by a group of four Members of Parliament (MPs) who left the United Party under the guidance of the leader of the United Party in the Transvaal, Harry Schwarz, who became the party's leader. Schwarz and others were staunchly opposed to apartheid and called for a much more rigorous opposition to the National Party. They said that they no longer felt the UP was "the vehicle in which we can travel the path of verligtheid". The party had four MPs, two senators, ten members of the Transvaal Provincial Council, 14 out of the 36 Johannesburg City Councillors and four Randburg City Councillors
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Saint James Church Massacre
The Saint James Church massacre was a massacre perpetrated on St James Anglican Church in Kenilworth, Cape Town, South Africa, on 25 July 1993 by four terrorists of the Azanian People's Liberation Army (APLA). Eleven members of the congregation were killed and 58 wounded. In 1998 the attackers were granted amnesty for their acts by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.Contents1 Massacre 2 Similar attacks 3 Arrest and trial 4 Amnesty 5 Reconciliation 6 Later developments 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksMassacre[edit] The attack occurred during the Sunday evening service
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Progressive Federal Party
The Progressive Federal Party
Progressive Federal Party
(PFP) (Afrikaans: Progressiewe Federale Party) was a South African political party formed in 1977. It was the main parliamentary opposition to apartheid, instead advocating power-sharing in South Africa
South Africa
through a federal constitution. Its first leader was Colin Eglin, who was succeeded by Frederik van Zyl Slabbert and then Zach de Beer. Another prominent member was Harry Schwarz who had led the Reform Party and was the chairman of the Federal Executive (1976–79), finance spokesman (1975–91) and defence spokesman (1975–84)
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