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Balloon (aircraft)
In aeronautics, a balloon is an unpowered aerostat, which remains aloft or floats due to its buoyancy. A balloon may be free, moving with the wind, or tethered to a fixed point. It is distinct from an airship, which is a powered aerostat that can propel itself through the air in a controlled manner. Many balloons have a basket, gondola, or capsule suspended beneath the main envelope for carrying people or equipment (including cameras and telescopes, and flight-control mechanisms).Contents1 Principles1.1 Hot air balloons 1.2 Gas balloons 1.3 Combination balloons 1.4 Tethering and kite balloons2 History2.1 Antecedents 2.2 The first modern balloons 2.3 Military use 2.4 Hot air returns3 Modern ballooning3.1 Sports 3.2 Commercial 3.3 Astronautics3.3.1 Balloon
Balloon
satellites 3.3.2 Planetary probes4 Ballooning records 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksPrinciples[edit] A balloon is conceptually the simplest of all flying machines
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Kongming Lantern
A sky lantern (simplified Chinese: 天灯; traditional Chinese: 天燈; pinyin: tiāndēng), also known as Kongming lantern or Chinese lantern, is a small hot air balloon made of paper, with an opening at the bottom where a small fire is suspended. In Asia and elsewhere around the world, sky lanterns have been traditionally made for centuries, to be launched for play or as part of long-established festivities. The name "sky lantern" is a translation of the Chinese name but they have also been referred to as sky candles or fire balloons' or even 'lava blimps'.Contents1 Construction 2 History 3 Usage in festivals3.1 Mainland China 3.2 Taiwan 3.3 Thailand 3.4 Portugal
Portugal
and Brazil 3.5 India4 Dangers4.1 Legal status5 See also 6 References 7 External linksConstruction[edit]Making sky lanterns in MexicoThe general design is a thin paper shell, which may be from about 30 cm to a couple of metres across, with an opening at the bottom
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Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta
Coordinates: 35°11′46″N 106°35′51″W / 35.19611°N 106.59750°W / 35.19611; -106.59750Early morning scene at the Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta.The nose of an inflatable half-scale model of a NASA
NASA
F/A-18
F/A-18
in front of the NASA
NASA
Aeronautics exhibit.The Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta
Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta
is a yearly hot air balloon festival that takes place in Albuquerque, New Mexico, during early October. The Balloon Fiesta is a nine-day event, and has over 500 hot air balloons each year
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Helium
Helium
Helium
(from Greek: ἥλιος, translit. Helios, lit. 'Sun') is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert, monatomic gas, the first in the noble gas group in the periodic table. Its boiling point is the lowest among all the elements. After hydrogen, helium is the second lightest and second most abundant element in the observable universe, being present at about 24% of the total elemental mass, which is more than 12 times the mass of all the heavier elements combined. Its abundance is similar to this figure in the Sun
Sun
and in Jupiter. This is due to the very high nuclear binding energy (per nucleon) of helium-4 with respect to the next three elements after helium. This helium-4 binding energy also accounts for why it is a product of both nuclear fusion and radioactive decay
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Methane
Methane
Methane
(US: /ˈmɛθeɪn/ or UK: /ˈmiːθeɪn/) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula CH4 (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen). It is a group-14 hydride and the simplest alkane, and is the main constituent of natural gas
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Montgolfier Brothers
Joseph-Michel Montgolfier (26 August 1740 – 26 June 1810) and Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier (6 January 1745 – 2 August 1799) were paper manufacturers from Annonay, in Ardèche, France best known as inventors of the Montgolfière-style hot air balloon, globe aérostatique. They launched the first piloted ascent, carrying Étienne
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Annonay
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Annonay
Annonay
(French pronunciation: ​[anɔnɛ]; Occitan: Anonai) is a French commune in the north of the Ardèche
Ardèche
department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
region of southern France
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Jacques Charles
Jacques Alexandre César Charles (November 12, 1746 – April 7, 1823) was a French inventor, scientist, mathematician, and balloonist. Charles wrote almost nothing about mathematics, and most of what has been credited to him was due to mistaking him with another Jacques Charles, also a member of the Paris
Paris
Academy of Sciences, entering on May 12, 1785. He was sometimes called Charles the Geometer. (See J. B. Gough, Charles the Obscure, Isis 70, #254, pgs 576-579) Charles and the Robert brothers
Robert brothers
launched the world's first (unmanned) hydrogen-filled balloon in August 1783; then in December 1783, Charles and his co-pilot Nicolas-Louis Robert ascended to a height of about 1,800 feet (550 m) in a manned balloon
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Lift (force)
A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a force on it. Lift is the component of this force that is perpendicular to the oncoming flow direction.[1] It contrasts with the drag force, which is the component of the force parallel to the flow direction. Lift conventionally acts in an upward direction in order to counter the force of gravity, but it can act in any direction at right angles to the flow. If the surrounding fluid is air, the force is called an aerodynamic force. In water or any other liquid, it is called a hydrodynamic force. Dynamic lift is distinguished from other kinds of lift in fluids. Aerostatic lift or buoyancy, in which an internal fluid is lighter than the surrounding fluid, does not require movement and is used by balloons, blimps, dirigibles, boats, and submarines
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Town Gas
Coal
Coal
gas is a flammable gaseous fuel made from coal and supplied to the user via a piped distribution system. The gas obtained when coal is heated strongly in the absence of air is called coal gas. Town gas is a more general term referring to manufactured gaseous fuels produced for sale to consumers and municipalities. Coal
Coal
gas contains a variety of calorific gases including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane and volatile hydrocarbons together with small quantities of non-calorific gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen. Prior to the development of natural gas supply and transmission—during the 1940s and 1950s in the United States
United States
and during the late 1960s and 1970s in Great Britain
Great Britain
and Australia—virtually all gas for fuel and lighting was manufactured from coal
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Oxygen
Oxygen
Oxygen
is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O 2. Diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth's atmosphere
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Hindenburg Disaster
The Hindenburg disaster occurred on May 6, 1937, as the German passenger airship LZ 129 Hindenburg
LZ 129 Hindenburg
caught fire and was destroyed during its attempt to dock with its mooring mast at Naval Air Station Lakehurst in Manchester Township, New Jersey, United States. Of the 97 people on board (36 passengers and 61 crewmen), there were 35 fatalities (13 passengers and 22 crewmen). One worker on the ground was also killed, raising the final death toll to 36. The disaster was the subject of spectacular newsreel coverage, photographs, and Herbert Morrison's recorded radio eyewitness reports from the landing field, which were broadcast the next day.[1] A variety of hypotheses have been put forward for both the cause of ignition and the initial fuel for the ensuing fire
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High-altitude Balloon
High-altitude balloons are manned or unmanned balloons, usually filled with helium or hydrogen and rarely methane, that are released into the stratosphere, generally attaining between 18,000 to 37,000 metres (59,000 to 121,000 ft; 11 to 23 mi). In 2002, a balloon named BU60-1 attained 53.0 km (32.9 mi; 173,900 ft).[1] The most common type of high-altitude balloons are weather balloons. Other purposes include use as a platform for experiments in the upper atmosphere
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Weather Balloon
A weather or sounding balloon is a balloon (specifically a type of high-altitude balloon) which carries instruments aloft to send back information on atmospheric pressure, temperature, humidity and wind speed by means of a small, expendable measuring device called a radiosonde. To obtain wind data, they can be tracked by radar, radio direction finding, or navigation systems (such as the satellite-based Global Positioning System, GPS). Balloons meant to stay at a constant altitude for long periods of time are known as transosondes.Contents1 History 2 Materials and equipment 3 Launch time, location, and uses 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] One of the first people to use weather balloons was Léon Teisserenc de Bort, the French meteorologist
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Kite Balloon
A kite balloon is a tethered balloon which is aerodynamically optimised for windy conditions by making it directionally stable and by minimising aerodynamic resistance to the wind, or drag. It typically comprises a streamlined envelope with stabilising features and a harness or yoke connecting it to the main tether. Kite balloons are able to fly in higher winds than ordinary round balloons. They were extensively used for naval and military observation during World War I, and for anti-aircraft deployments as barrage balloons in World War II.Contents1 Development and construction 2 Naval use2.1 Effectiveness 2.2 Operation3 See also 4 References4.1 Notes 4.2 BibliographyDevelopment and construction[edit] Developed in Germany from 1893 by Parseval and Sigsfeld, the main component of a kite balloon is its aerodynamically streamlined envelope, similar to that of a non-rigid airship. Unlike most airships, the envelope is also the main lifting gas bag
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Bristol
Urban Chris Skidmore
Chris Skidmore
(Con) Jack Lopresti
Jack Lopresti
(Con)Area • City and county 40 sq mi (110 km2)Elevation[1] 36&#
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