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Baleen
BALEEN is a filter-feeder system inside the mouths of baleen whales . The baleen system works by a whale opening its mouth underwater and taking in water. The whale then pushes the water out, and animals such as krill are filtered by the baleen and remain as food source for the whale. Baleen
Baleen
is similar to bristles and consists of keratin , the same substance found in human fingernails and hair. Baleen
Baleen
is a skin derivative. Some whales, such as the bowhead whale , have longer baleen than others. Other whales, such as the gray whale , only use one side of their baleen. These baleen bristles are arranged in plates across the upper jaw of the whale. Baleen
Baleen
is often called WHALEBONE, but that name also can refer to the normal bones of whales, which have often been used as a material, especially as a cheaper substitute for ivory in carving
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Tooth Enamel
TOOTH ENAMEL is one of the four major tissues that make up the tooth in humans and many other animals, including some species of fish. It makes up the normally visible part of the tooth, covering the crown . The other major tissues are dentin , cementum , and dental pulp . It is a very hard, white to off-white, highly mineralised substance that acts as a barrier to protect the tooth but can become susceptible to degradation, especially by acids from food and drink
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Pseudogene
PSEUDOGENES are segments of DNA
DNA
that are related to real genes . Pseudogenes have lost at least some functionality, relative to the complete gene, in cellular gene expression or protein -coding ability. Pseudogenes often result from the accumulation of multiple mutations within a gene whose product is not required for the survival of the organism, but can also be caused by genomic copy number variation (CNV) where segments of 1+ kb are duplicated or deleted. Although not fully functional, pseudogenes may be functional, similar to other kinds of noncoding DNA
DNA
, which can perform regulatory functions . The "pseudo" in "pseudogene" implies a variation in sequence relative to the parent coding gene, but does not necessarily indicate pseudo-function. Despite being non-coding, many pseudogenes have important roles in normal physiology and abnormal pathology
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Parsimony
OCCAM\'S RAZOR (also OCKHAM\'S RAZOR; Latin
Latin
: lex parsimoniae "LAW OF PARSIMONY") is a problem-solving principle attributed to William of Ockham (c. 1287–1347), who was an English Franciscan
Franciscan
friar, scholastic philosopher, and theologian. His principle states that among competing hypotheses, the one with the fewest assumptions should be selected. In science, Occam's razor
Occam's razor
is used as a heuristic guide in the development of theoretical models, rather than as a rigorous arbiter between candidate models. In the scientific method , Occam's razor is not considered an irrefutable principle of logic or a scientific result; the preference for simplicity in the scientific method is based on the falsifiability criterion
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Edentulous
EDENTULISM or TOOTHLESSNESS is the condition of being toothless to at least some degree; in organisms (such as humans) that naturally have teeth (dentition ), it is the result of tooth loss . Loss of some teeth is called partial edentulism, whereas loss of all teeth is called complete edentulism. Persons who have lost teeth are (either partially or completely) EDENTULOUS (EDENTATE), whereas those who have not lost teeth can be called dentate by comparison. For example, a scientific study may include a partially edentulous group and a healthy dentate control group . Organisms that never possessed teeth can also be described as edentulous, such as members of the former zoological classification order of Edentata , which included anteaters and sloths , all of which possess no anterior teeth and either no or poorly developed posterior teeth
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Germ Cell
A GERM CELL is any biological cell that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually . In many animals, the germ cells originate in the primitive streak and migrate via the gut of an embryo to the developing gonads . There, they undergo meiosis , followed by cellular differentiation into mature gametes, either eggs or sperm . Unlike animals, plants do not have germ cells designated in early development. Instead, germ cells can arise from somatic cells in the adult (such as the floral meristem of flowering plants )
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Stepwise Refinement
TOP-DOWN and BOTTOM-UP are both strategies of information processing and knowledge ordering, used in a variety of fields including software, humanistic and scientific theories (see systemics ), and management and organization. In practice, they can be seen as a style of thinking, teaching, or leadership. A TOP-DOWN approach (also known as stepwise design and in some cases used as a synonym of decomposition) is essentially the breaking down of a system to gain insight into its compositional sub-systems in a reverse engineering fashion. In a top-down approach an overview of the system is formulated, specifying, but not detailing, any first-level subsystems. Each subsystem is then refined in yet greater detail, sometimes in many additional subsystem levels, until the entire specification is reduced to base elements. A top-down model is often specified with the assistance of "black boxes", which makes it easier to manipulate
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Antarctic Circumpolar Current
The ANTARCTIC CIRCUMPOLAR CURRENT (ACC) is an ocean current that flows clockwise from west to east around Antarctica
Antarctica
. An alternative name for the ACC is the WEST WIND DRIFT. The ACC is the dominant circulation feature of the Southern Ocean and has a mean transport of 100-150 Sverdrups (Sv, million m³/s), making it the largest ocean current. More recent research even puts this number at over 173 Sv. The current is circumpolar due to the lack of any landmass connecting with Antarctica
Antarctica
and this keeps warm ocean waters away from Antarctica, enabling that continent to maintain its huge ice sheet . Associated with the Circumpolar Current is the Antarctic Convergence , where the cold Antarctic waters meet the warmer waters of the subantarctic , creating a zone of upwelling nutrients
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Ocean
An OCEAN (from Ancient Greek Ὠκεανός, transc. Okeanós , the sea of classical antiquity ) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet 's hydrosphere . On Earth
Earth
, an ocean is one of the major conventional divisions of the World Ocean
World Ocean
. These are, in descending order by area, the Pacific , Atlantic , Indian , Southern (Antarctic), and Arctic
Arctic
Oceans. The word sea is often used interchangeably with "ocean" in American English
American English
but, strictly speaking, a sea is a body of saline water (generally a division of the world ocean) partly or fully enclosed by land. Saline water covers approximately 360,000,000 km2 (140,000,000 sq mi) and is customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas, with the ocean covering approximately 71% of Earth's surface and 90% of the Earth's biosphere
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Salinity
SALINITY is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity ). This is usually measured in g salt k g sea water {displaystyle {frac {g {textrm {salt}}}{kg {textrm {sea}} {textrm {water}}}}} (note that this is technically dimensionless). Salinity
Salinity
is an important factor in determining many aspects of the chemistry of natural waters and of biological processes within it, and is a thermodynamic state variable that, along with temperature and pressure , governs physical characteristics like the density and heat capacity of the water. A contour line of constant salinity is called an isohaline, or sometimes isohale
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Foramina
In anatomy , a FORAMEN (/fəˈreɪmən/ ; pl. FORAMINA, /fəˈræmɪnə/ ) is any opening. Foramina inside the body of humans and other animals typically allow muscles , nerves , arteries , veins , or other structures to connect one part of the body with another. CONTENTS * 1 Skull
Skull
* 2 Spine * 3 Other * 4 See also * 5 References SKULL Main article: Foramina of the skull The skulls of vertebrates (including humans ) have foramina through which nerves, arteries, veins and other structures pass. SPINE Main article: Intervertebral foramina
Intervertebral foramina
Within the vertebral column (spine) of vertebrates, including the human spine , each bone has an opening at both its top and bottom to allow nerves, arteries, veins, etc. to pass through
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Blood Vessel
The BLOOD VESSELS are the part of the circulatory system that transports blood throughout the human body . There are three major types of blood vessels: the arteries , which carry the blood away from the heart ; the capillaries , which enable the actual exchange of water and chemicals between the blood and the tissues ; and the veins , which carry blood from the capillaries back toward the heart. The word vascular, meaning relating to the blood vessels, is derived from the Latin
Latin
vas, meaning vessel. A few structures (such as cartilage and the lens of the eye) do not contain blood vessels and are labeled
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Phylogenetic
In biology , PHYLOGENETICS /ˌfaɪloʊdʒəˈnɛtɪks, -lə-/ (Greek : φυλή, φῦλον - phylé, phylon = tribe, clan, race + γενετικός - genetikós = origin, source, birth) is the study of the evolutionary history and relationships among individuals or groups of organisms (e.g. species , or populations ). These relationships are discovered through phylogenetic inference methods that evaluate observed heritable traits, such as DNA
DNA
sequences or morphology under a model of evolution of these traits. The result of these analyses is a phylogeny (also known as a phylogenetic tree ) – a diagrammatic hypothesis about the history of the evolutionary relationships of a group of organisms. The tips of a phylogenetic tree can be living organisms or fossils, and represent the "end," or the present, in an evolutionary lineage. Phylogenetic analyses have become central to understanding biodiversity, evolution, ecology, and genomes
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Barrow, Alaska
BARROW (/ˈbæroʊ/ ), known officially as UTQIAġVIK ( Iñupiaq
Iñupiaq
), is the largest city of the North Slope Borough
North Slope Borough
in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Alaska
Alaska
and is located north of the Arctic Circle
Arctic Circle
. It is the 11th northernmost public community in the world and is the northernmost city in the United States
United States
. Nearby Point Barrow
Point Barrow
is the U.S.'s northernmost point. Utqiaġvik's population was 4,683 at the 2000 census and 4,212 at the 2010 census
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San Diego Museum Of Man
The SAN DIEGO MUSEUM OF MAN is a museum of anthropology located in Balboa Park , San Diego, California
San Diego, California
and housed in the historic landmark buildings of the California Quadrangle
California Quadrangle
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Collections * 3 Layout of exhibits * 3.1 First floor * 3.2 Second floor * 3.3 Evernham Hall * 4 Special
Special
events * 5 In popular culture * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYThe museum traces its origins to the Panama-California Exposition
Panama-California Exposition
, which opened in 1915 on the occasion of the inauguration of the Panama Canal . The central exhibit of the exposition, "The Story of Man through the Ages", was assembled under the direction of noted archaeologist Dr
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San Diego
SAN DIEGO (/ˌsæn diˈeɪɡoʊ/ ; Spanish for "Saint Didacus "; Spanish: ) is a major city in California
California
, United States
United States
. It is in San Diego County , on the coast of the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
in Southern California
California
, approximately 120 miles (190 km) south of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and immediately adjacent to the border with Mexico
Mexico
. With an estimated population of 1,406,630 as of July 1, 2016, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States
United States
and second-largest in California. It is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation , the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the US and a bordering country after Detroit–Windsor , with a population of 4,922,723 people
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